The main aspects of employment are incorporated within the Labour code, Employment policy and other work-related laws and policy areas.
The main aspects of entrepreneurship are incorporated within the Civil Code, Trade Act, Act on Agriculture, other relevant Acts mostly according to the field of business and within entrepreneurship policies.
The subsequent legislature does not distinguish between the general population and the Youth. Young people are entitled to the very same conditions, aid and support as the general public following the logic of equal access and opportunities, and the principle of non-discrimination based on age. However, Young people are seen as one of the more vulnerable groups or groups at risk in regard to the labour market. Also, in accordance with international standards and the Czech Constitutional Order, children up to 18 years of age have an extraordinary level of legal protection according to the Labour Code and the Civil Code. (For details see Chapter 1.2)
The current employment policy is Employment Policy Strategy 2020 (EPS 2020), agreed by the Government and implemented by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MPSV).
The manner of policy intervention into the labour market is rather more supportive than restrictive and due to free-market ideology has only limited possibilities for governing the situation on the labour market.
Many of the competencies are given to regional and local self-governing bodies as regional offices and regional branches of state administration. On a national level, it is more or less coordinating and steering activities in regions and aims at the integration of the labour market within the EU.
A Tripartite exists in the form of the Economic and Social Agreement Council. This is a joint voluntary bargaining and initiative body between government, labour unions and employer unions, and is responsible for social dialogue in the country. It is composed of the three parties: representatives of Government, entrepreneurs/employers and employees. Each party hosts seven members and the chair is the Prime minister.
Concerning employment policy, Youth is usually an age group of up to 25 years of age, or university graduates under 30 years of age, generally with no long-term work experience.
Lower youth employment is related to not only the disadvantaged position of this group in the labour market but also to its low economic activity in comparison to the rest of the society. The most prominent issues can be found among young people without primary education, NEETs and further with lower-educated graduates. Graduates from universities are affected to a much lesser extent. The economic crisis impacted youth unemployment by increasing it primarily in the youngest part of the generation. Since 2012/2013 however, the trend is declining, and the total and even youth unemployment are among the lowest in the EU in the last years.
The State Employment Strategy 2020 recognises the problematic place of young people in the labour market as an issue, especially in some regions.
The causes of the problem are considered to be:
- Lack of career guidance and advice on the selection of a profession concerning pupils and students in schools
- Knowledge and skills not satisfying the needs of the labour market, in particular, an inappropriate subject structure of graduates
- Lack of practical experience of graduates entering the job market.
- Incomplete expectations of young people on the functioning of the labour market and its expectations
Following Strategy Europe 2020, there is a national employment policy target to reduce the youth unemployment rate (15-24 years) by one third compared to 2010.