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In order to early detect any medical health issue and risk, the Public Health Insurance system is in place following the Act no. 48/1997 on Public Health Insurance.
The scope of what should be examined by obligatory preventive examinations within the system, is given by Decree of the Ministry of Health no. 70/2012 Sb. on preventive examinations.
There are obligatory preventive examinations by doctors for children and adolescents (up to 19 years of age) and adults (19 years and above), by dentists and by gynaecologists (only for women).
These preventive examinations are free of charge for the persons (provided by the Public Health Insurance). The obligation to attend is given in the Act no. 48/1997 on Public Health Insurance art. 12.
The defined health examination framework is as follows:
- in the first year of life 9x a year (of which at least 6x in the first 6 months and of which at least 3x in the first three months of the life)
- at 18 months of life
- at 3 years of age and since then every 2 years (minimum interval between the preventive examination is 18 months)
- the '19 years old' examination needs to be done before the person is 19 years of age and it is an exit examination from the care of the Practitioner for Children and Adolescents. Then the Young person needs to register at the Practitioner for adults and the preventive examination are still at 2yearly intervals.
- in the case of dentists the preventive examination is up to 18 years of age 2x a year, after reaching 18 years, it is 1x a year, and for pregnant women, it is 2x during the pregnancy period
- in the case of gynaecologists, it is at the end of the obligatory school attendance and from 15 years of age 1x a year
If someone is diagnosed with a disease, beyond this preventive framework, he or she is ordered within the dispersive care covered by the public health insurance as well. The dispersive care system provides continuous professional medical care including regular monitoring, check-ups and healing visits by specialised doctors, in case of children by specialised children's professionals (in hospitals as well as out of hospitals).
Health risk factors in the environment
In order to early detect risk factors in the environment for children and young people, the field and system of the 'hygiene of children and adolescents' within the scope of the protection of public health is regulated in the Act no. 258/2000 Sb. on Public Health including the control mechanisms and the inspection system for detection (the system of Health Institutes and Hygiene Stations).
The field of study Hygiene of children and youth works from the premise that different age groups are characterised by specific peculiarities of physical and mental development, and it studies the influence of environment, living and working conditions on healthy development and health status of children and youth and identifies risk factors of disease. Apart from the public system, it is also a special field of study in academia in medical sciences.
Social risks affecting health
In order to detect social issues and unsatisfactory conditions, social-legal protection of Children is anchored in the Act no. 359/1999 Sb. on the social-legal protection of Children
The protection is in the fields of:
- the child's right to a favourable development and proper education,
- protection of the legitimate interests of the child, including the protection of his or her assets,
- restoration of disrupted family functions.
In order to detect potential risks early, any person is entitled to contact the parents of children and young people to inform them. Doctors for Children and Adolescents as well as teachers are obligated, if they detect anything, to inform respective public authorities (municipality department, police, etc.)
If any doctor or teacher has any suspicion or hints of other health risks and issues from other areas, he or she needs to take action and to inform the proper Authority.
The National Health Institute, Regional Hygiene Stations, and Hygiene Stations in cities with delegated powers responsible for the respective local area monitor public health issues affecting (young) people.
The social departments of municipalities, so-called OSPOD (Odbor sociálně právní ochrany dětí) monitor social health issues linked to social-legal issues of Children.
In case that children (up to 18 years), or anybody else, are smoking, drinking alcohol or using any other illegal drug in sports grounds for children or mostly devoted or accessible to children, the groundsman should tackle the issue and if necessary contact the respective Authority.
Any person can give an impetus to the relevant public authority if there is a justified reason, and they should inform the parents about the relevant issue.
Guidance to teachers is given by the system of preventive measures.
The publicly available web portal for this system is www.prevence-info.cz where teachers and the public can find relevant and current information.
Some aspects are covered by the Decree on the provision of counselling services in schools and school counselling facilities no. 72/2005 Sb.
Regarding Drugs and Substance abuse, the web portal www.drogy-info.cz is available for all stakeholders.
For professionals in social-legal protection matters, the web portal www.ospod.cz is available.
For professionals, their profession channels are also in use – counselling, further education structures, etc.
The main target group is Children, i.e. persons up to 18 years of age. There are no other special sub-groups in relation to age. Practically, the student status is also depending on the age (26 or 28 years in case of PhD. studies).
The state budget fully covers services specifically targeting children and adolescents up to 18 years of age. Some streams are delegated for this purpose to regional and local actors as well.
The Public Health Insurance System - the Public Health Insurance Companies, cover the Medical examination and care. Individual public insurance payers finance such provisions, according to the legislation. For Children, Students (and other respective groups not linked to age), the Public Health Insurance is paid by the state budget.
For specific projects within the system, other resources can be used, especially EU Structural Funds, regional, local or even private sources.