3.3 Skills forecasting
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All activities carried out under responsibility of the VQI (Vocational Qualifications Institution) and included in the UMYS (National Vocational Qualifications System) aim to provide a vocational profile that will define the qualities demanded by the labour market and to bring the individuals with qualifications suitable to the developed profile to the labour market. Therefore, a participatory understanding is adopted in development and verification of the UMS (National Vocational Standards) and UYs (National Qualifications), conduct of exam and certification activities in an objective manner and development and put into force of the TQF (Turkish Qualifications Framework), and future demands of the labour market are taken into account.
UMSs aim to define the labour profile needed by the labour market and to meet qualified labour need of the labour market while UYs are the documents which contain learning acquisitions that an individual should have, used for learning and assessment and based on national or international vocational standards. All elements defined in the UMS and UYs (duties, procedures and performance criteria, etc.) reflect properly expectations of the industry for the relevant profession and clearly define expectations of the industry from individuals to practice relevant profession. The UMS and UYs are developed by working groups developed by the VQI or institutions/establishments capable to represent relevant industry as assigned by the VQI. The drafts developed are examined, assessed and verified by industrial committees with sufficient technical knowledge and skills in the profession in which all the interested parties are represented.
After the verification process carried out by the industrial committees, the UMSs and UYs are approved by the VQI Board of Directors which represents all interested parties (public, educational society, young people, employee and employer and professional organizations) and put into force by being published in the Official Gazette.
The Turkish Vocational And Technical Training Strategy Document and Action Plan has been developed according to priorities underlined in top policy documents and in line with national and international developments in order to establish a flexible, permeable and innovative vocational and technical training system which enables active participation of stakeholders, prepares people for employment and which provides all segments of the society with the opportunity to learn and which supports social and economic development. In this Document skills and professions needed by the labour market are explained and elaborated with statistical data. In this sense, İŞKUR and social stakeholders make labour market need analyses throughout the country in order to determine professions needed by the labour market, to identify skills necessary for such professions, to predict professions for which employment increase or decrease is foreseen for upcoming periods, to monitor changes and developments in the labour market and to reveal effects of such changes and developments on the labour force need and to determine the measures that should be taken.
The Skills 2020 Report of Turkey was developed with the participation of public authorities and civil community in Turkey, support of the ETF (European Training Foundation) and under leadership of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security. The ETF has developed the Skills 2020 Report of Turkey with the participation of international experts and national policy leaders and stakeholders. The report contains skills vision and road map. In the report various issues such as what activities should be prioritized in terms of skills development in the mid-term, until 2020, and how the educational and training system and applicable methods for activities can be adapted to a lifelong and inclusive approach in order to develop necessary skills when existing resources and capacities are taken into account.
“Program for Development of Basic and Vocational Skills” among the prioritized transformation programs included in the 10th Development Plan which covers the period 2014 to 2018has been developed accordingly. In the said program, importance of individuals having basic skills required by business life in addition to vocational skills and strengthening of relationship between the educational system and the working life in terms of development of human resources in Turkey was underlined.
In the Tenth Development Plan (2014 - 2018) following objectives were determined to be the basic components of the Program for Development of Basic and Vocational Skills:
- Enhancement of Harmonization of Educational System with the Labour Market
- Development of Basic Skills of Young People at Educational Age
- Development of Basic Skills of Young Labour Force
- Development of Artistic and Sportive Activities
- Enhancement of Vocational Qualifications
The law on Vocational Training is one of the basic legal documents in Turkey in terms of vocational qualifications and skills. Purpose of this Law is to regulate the principles relating to training of apprentices, foremen and master workers as well as vocational trainings in schools and enterprises.
The Vocational Qualifications Institution is one of the most important establishments in Turkey in terms of development and assessment of vocational qualifications and skills. This Institution is responsible to determine principles for national qualifications in technical and vocational areas, to establish and operate the national qualifications system necessary to carry out activities relating to audits, measurements and assessments, certifications and documentation and to regulate issues relating to the Turkish Qualifications Framework on the basis of national and international vocational standards.
The Public education centres are the establishments which contribute in skills and vocational development which are organized throughout the country. They provide services with at least one branch everywhere (in districts) in Turkey without discriminating between provinces or districts since they are public institutions. Everyone older than the obligatory education age can get use of such opportunities without any upper age limit.
The Directorate General for Lifelong Learning within the Ministry of National Education has determined objectives under the following topics in the Lifelong Learning Strategy Document and Action Plan (2014 - 2018).
- Enhancement of participation rate in lifelong learning
- Development of vocational training activities at workplaces
- Generalization of awareness raising activities in terms of lifelong learning
- Monitoring and assessment of lifelong learning system
- Access of disadvantageous groups to lifelong learning
- Promotion of flexible learning means
The Youth Centres within the Ministry of Youth and Sports whose is number is about 300 participate in development of young people’s skills through free courses provided for young people at many branches.