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In relation to the social inclusion of young people in Turkey, National Youth and Sports Policy Document is one of the main reference documents. One of the policy areas in this Document is “Disadvantaged Young People and Social Inclusion”.
Development Plans, which are published by the Department of Strategy and Budget within the Presidency in every 5 years, contain some strategies in relation to the social inclusion of young people. The most recent of these plans which is in force is the Eleventh Development Plan (2019-2023).
Strategic Plan of General Directorate of Migration Management
Foreigners and International Protection Law no 6458 which has constituted a migration management structure in Turkey with a comprehensive approach was approved in 2013. On the basis of this law, General Directorate of Migration Management has been founded. This law has been brought about with a view to the fact that Turkey has a destinational character in today’s migration movements and by focusing on humanitarian basis approach respecting the human rights of vulnerable groups in particular and to human rights of all migrants in general.
The harmonization implicated in this law comes up with migrants’ and the society’s reciprocal understanding of each other on a voluntary basis. Foreigners and International Protection Law allows for the undertaking of the works for reciprocal harmonization of foreigners, international protection applicants and beneficiaries. Migrant focused approach and multidimensional and bilateral active interaction are adopted during the development of harmonization strategies. Harmonization activities include the contents listed below:
- Undertaking of the integration activities in order to facilitate foreigners’, international protection applicants’ or beneficiaries’’ integration with society.
- Developing knowledge and skills acquisition for facilitating them to be independently active in all areas of social life without the aid of third persons.
- Organizing basic courses for foreigners on the political structure, language, legal system, culture and history of the country as well as their rights and obligations.
- Carrying out promotion and information activities through organizing courses, distant learning and similar systems with regard to issues such as benefiting from public and private goods and services, access to education and economic activities, social and cultural interaction and receiving basic health services.
- Planning integration activities by benefitting from the suggestions and contributions of public institutions and organizations, local administrations as well as civil society organizations, universities and international organizations.
- Supporting migrants harmonization with the host society without forcing them to renounce their own cultural identities.
- Developing awareness and tolerance environment with regard to integration process in society.
The Strategic Plan covering the years between 2017-2021 has been drawn up within the general perspective of harmonization principle. In the Strategic Plan (2017-2021) 6 strategical goals have been laid down. In the scope of these goals, certain themes have been prioritized and specific measures have been offered. 6 strategical goals are as follows:
- To ensure the efficient and prompt fulfillment of the works and procedures concerning foreigners within the framework of regular migration.
- To constitute a migration management respecting the basic human rights and liberties, complying with international standards, considering the best practices and recent developments in the field of migration management.
- To fulfill all the procedures of those who are in need of protection either individually or collectively by guaranteeing their basic human rights.
- To develop a system of victim protection and of fighting victimization in a victim-focused manner with a view to the international law concerning struggle against human trafficking and victim protection.
- To support the mutual harmonisation of foreigners with the society.
- To found an efficient institutional structure continually improving its managerial and organisational qualities and utilizing its resources in an economical and effective way
The scope and content of the policy area named "Disadvantaged Young People and Social Inclusion" in the National Youth and Sports Policy Document are as follows:
- Preventing the exposure of disabled young people to social exclusion.
- To give support to produce projects relating to the reintegration of disabled young people into society.
- To use mass media in order to increase social awareness towards disabled people and improve the cooperation between educational institutions and nongovernmental organisations.
- To take into consideration disabled individuals in urban planning and regulations and to provide solutions in accordance with their demands and needs.
- To increase the number of activities based on raising awareness of disabled young people about the legal rights they have.
- To provide psycho-social support services to the families of disabled young people by specialists whenever needed.
- To conduct activities for the personal, social and cultural development of disabled young people.
- To train qualified sports experts to undertake sports activities for disabled young people.
- To increase the number of and improve the facilities which can be used for disabled young people if they do not have parents or any other person who can take care of them.
2. Integrating young people who committed crime into society and preventing young people’s inclination towards criminal behaviour.
- To conduct scientific studies on the reasons of young people’s inclination towards crime.
- To increase work on the determination of young individuals with high criminal potential and on the provision of psycho-social support services according to their needs.
- To provide rehabilitation of environments that may cause criminal tendency in young people.
- To provide effective rehabilitation for young people inclined towards crime.
- To conduct studies in order to enable convicted young people to continue their education after they are released.
3. Providing social integration of young people living in the streets.
- To encourage studies on young people living in the streets and to support ongoing studies.
- To carry out studies on the social inclusion of young people pushed into living in the streets.
- To produce projects to remove reasons causing young people live in the streets.
- To raise awareness of the families of young people who live or work in the streets.
- To facilitate access of young people living in the streets to educational opportunities.
- To conduct studies on increasing social awareness about young people living in the streets.
- To increase measures providing psychological and social development and harmony and protective measures against inclination towards crime for young people living in the streets.
4. Taking preventative measures to protect young people from addictive substances and performing studies on the treatment of young addicts.
- To increase the number and accessibility of rehabilitation and treatment centres for young drug addicts.
- To provide psycho-social services for young drug addicts and their families.
- To have effective control on incentive releases in the social media in the struggle against addiction.
- To increase awareness about drug addiction by means of education provided by experts to families through youth centres.
- To extend and to make more active the centres for the treatment of young drug addicts.
5. Increasing the awareness of young people and other parts of the society about disadvantaged individuals and their active participation in social integration processes.
- To ensure that the necessary education is given to young people and other parts of the society on social gender equality.
- To establish effective cooperation between young people and policy makers during the formation of social inclusion policies.
- To increase the awareness of young people and other parts of the society about the integration of young people who live in orphanages and were raised without the affection of family after they leave orphanages and to provide their active participation in social life.
- To develop rewarding mechanisms for successful disadvantaged young people in the society in order to increase the determination of disadvantaged young people to fight against challenges.
6. Ensuring the social inclusion of young people who have migrated to the city and have social adaptation problems.
- To meet psycho-social needs of young people having migrated to the city.
- To prioritise the education of young people who are member of families having migrated to the city temporarily and having socio-economic disadvantages.
- To provide services according to the needs of young people who migrated due to natural disasters and who have experienced psychological, social and economic damage.
- To use youth centres effectively to provide the integration of young people who have migrated to the city and to prevent their alienation.
- To take necessary measures to enable young people who could not benefit from educational rights for certain reasons to benefit from vocational and non-formal education opportunities within the framework of the lifelong learning strategy.
7. Preventing young people from being abused.
- To increase social awareness about the physical and emotional abuse of disabled people.
- To take preventative measures against all kinds of abuse which the young people face in their families and at the workplace.
- To provide psycho-social support services by specialists for abused young people and their families.
- To increase social awareness by means of the media, social media, the internet and educational institutions in order to prevent the abuse of young people.
8. Supporting young women in every area of life.
- To encourage studies on the problems young women experience.
- To support the production of projects on solving of the problems young women experience.
- To use mass media means and to provide cooperation with educational institutions and nongovernmental organisations in order to create awareness about the problems young women face.
- To take into consideration young women in urban planning and regulations and to provide the generation of solutions according to their demands and needs.
- To increase the number of works based on the awareness of young women about the legal rights they have.
- To conduct work in order to increase the rate of young women’s benefiting from services in educational, health, political areas and of their representation.
In the Eleventh Development Plan (2019-2023), the scope and contents in relation to the social inclusion of young people are as follows.
- Mobility projects are to be tailored according to the needs of diasadventagous young people.
- It is aimed to increase the participation of young people, who are not in education or employment, in economic and social life.
- It is aimed to ensure that young people are equipped with the requirements of the information society, are active in the development process of the country, are empowered with life skills, are self-confident entrepreneur and participatory, have humanitarian and national values and to increase the quality of services for young people.
- Worst forms of child labour such as works in the street, heavy and hazardous works, paid employment in mobile and seasonal agriculture works apart from family work will be eliminated.
- It will be provided that youth are more active in social life and decision making mechanisms; mobility programmes will be diversified and scaled up so as to increase the participation of disadvantaged young people.
- In order to prevent young people from turning to violence and harmful habits, supportive programmes in the field of sports, culture and arts will be maintained.
- The number of staff fighting addiction is to be built up.
- Addictive substances are to be excluded from the acess range of young people.
- By way of facilitating the access of population segments that are under risk of poverty and social exclusion to the opportunities, the main purpose is to enhance their participation to economic and social life, increase their quality of life and improve income distribution and alleviate poverty are the main objectives. In this respect, it is essential that a supply-oriented and employment linked system that approaches family needs in an integrated way is established in the field of social services and assistance.
Opportunities for being qualified employees will continue to be developed for the whole society, particularly for the young and women, by taking the regional, local and sectorial labour force dynamics into consideration.
The authority responsible for implementing and monitoring the National Youth and Sports Policy Document is the Ministry of Youth and Sports.
Article 18 of the Decree Law No 638 on Organisation and Duties of the Ministry of Youth and Sports includes the provision; “National Youth and Sports Policy Document is drawn up by the Ministry and submitted for the approval of the Cabinet of Ministers with the purpose of ensuring coordination and cooperation among the public organisations and institutions which carry out the policies and activities affecting the young people directly or indirectly. National Youth and Sports Policy Document is reviewed and revised in every four years at the latest. When revising the National Youth and Sports Policy Document, suggestions of the related public organisations and institutions, sports federations and nongovernmental organisations are taken into consideration”. In accordance with this provision, policy document is updated in every four years at the latest. With the adoption of Presidential System in Turkey, 1 number Presidential decree prescribed the foundation of Ministry of Youth and Sports in legal terms with the same tasks and responsibilities.
Development Plans are drawn up in every 5 years