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Turkey

Turkey

4. Social Inclusion

4.4 Inclusive programmes for young people

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  1. Programmes specific for vulnerable young people
  2. Funding
  3. Quality assurance

Programmes specific for vulnerable young people

There are programmes carried out by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Family and Social Services and Social Security Institution for vulnerable young people.

Ministry of Labour and Social Security carries out grant programmes for the social integration and employment of disadvantaged individuals and groups with the purpose of fighting social exclusion with the financial support from European Union. In that framework, grant opportunities are provided to groups which are sensitive or subjected to social exclusion such as individuals under the risk of poverty, disabled individuals, Romani people, compulsory immigration victims or old convicts. 

Turkish Employment Agency (İŞKUR) works to increase the employment of young people, women, people with disabilities, ex-convicts, long-term unemployed and disadvantaged groups in the labour market through vocational training courses and on-the-job training programs in the required professions in the labour market.

A total of 297,951 people benefited from the vocational training courses, 124,920 people in 2019, 87,372 people in 2020, and 85,659 people in the January-October 2021 period. 37.71% (112,863 people) of the trainees consist of young people in the 15-24 age group. A total of 1,056,112 people benefited from the on-the-job training programs, 402,393 people in 2019, 335,761 people in 2020, and 317,958 people in the January-October 2021 period. 50.37% (532,532 people) of the participants consist of young people in the 15-24 age group.

In addition, intensive job and vocational counselling services are offered through Job Clubs, aiming to provide method and motivation support for groups requiring special policy such as women, youth, people with disabilities, the long-term unemployed, ex-convicts, and those receiving drug addiction treatment. In addition, potential NEETs (young people between the ages of 15-24 who are neither in education nor in employment) are identified among those registered with İŞKUR. In order to bring the people identified as NEETs to the labour market, the business and vocation Consultants carry out a search for appropriate Institutional services for NEETs, and when they detect appropriate services, they contact young people.

At the end of October 2021, the number of young people employed by ISKUR is 415.083, and the ratio of placement in total employment is 38.9 percent. It is aimed to mediate for job placement of about 500.000 young people by the end of 2021.

On the other hand, career days aimed at young people are organized to support young people's knowledge of industries and firms, to help them find jobs, to help them plan careers, and to facilitate employers' access to qualified labour force.

Private sector workplaces benefit from the "Additional Employment Incentive" offered by İŞKUR for 18 months if they hire young people aged between 18-25. Employers can benefit from incentives between 12 and 54 months if young people are recruited within the scope of "Incentives for Women, Youth and Those Who Have a Vocational Qualification Certificate".

Within the scope of “On-the-Job Training Programs for Future Professions”, on-the-job training programs for up to 9 months can be organized for young people aged 18-29 in 100 professions determined as the future professions.

Within the scope of the Qualified Informatics Specialist Training Project, trainings are provided in the professions of Software Specialist, System Specialist, Enterprise Resource Planning Specialist, Cyber Security Specialist, Cloud Computing Specialist and Game Development Specialist for the qualified workforce needs of the IT sector.

With the Labour Market Support Program (NEET PRO) for "Youth in Neither Education Nor Employment (NEET)", whose preparatory work continues within the scope of EU Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA-2) by İŞKUR, active labour force programs for NEETs as well as individual action plans, it is aimed to increase the employability and labour force participation of NEETs by providing innovative, comprehensive and holistic labour market support such as job searching allowance and relocation assistance. The project consists of two components, technical support and grant.

"Social Cohesion with Sports Project" carried out jointly by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Turkish National Olympic Committee and the Association for Solidarity with Asylum Seekers and Migrants, it was funded by ORF (Olympic Refuge Foundation) and it was held in Ankara, Bursa, Mersin, Samsun and Şanlıurfa provinces 2019 between 2022. With the project, children under temporary and international protection and the children in the host community were strengthened through sports, reducing social tension that may occur between communities, identifying individuals at risk through activities and referring them to relevant institutions.

Social cohesion, culture and guidance activities are carried out for foreign students within the scope of PIKTES by the Ministry of National Education (neighbourhood conversations, family trainings, psychological counselling and guidance services, establishment of hobby/activity workshops, intercity cultural, scientific and historical trips etc).

Due to the Turkish language barrier, foreign students experience difficulties in adapting to society and the Turkish education system. In order to increase the adaptation of these students to the Turkish education system, integration classes were opened. Foreign students who scored less than 60 points in the exam held by the Ministry were admitted to these classes. However, since face-to-face education was suspended in educational institutions due to the Coronavirus (Covid-19) epidemic that started in the second semester of the 2019-2020 academic year, changes were made in the practices of integration classes (Compatibility Classes Circular No. 2020/7 for Foreign Students). In addition, students at other class levels are taken to Turkish language teaching courses in Public Education Centres, in case of need.

Within the framework of the 2023 Education Vision of the Ministry of National Education, it is aimed to expand early childhood education services and increase access to early childhood education. Within the framework of this goal, increasing the access of all foreign national children to early childhood education services is one of the priorities of the Ministry of National Education. In this context, “Early Childhood Education for Syrian Children in Turkey and Turkish Children in Need” is carried out in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Lifelong Learning, General Directorate of Basic Education, and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Within the scope of the project, it is aimed to improve conditions that support early childhood development for Syrian children aged 3-6 and disadvantaged children in the host community.

Within the scope of Social Inclusion and Social Integration Financial Support Programme 2010 which was carried out by İstanbul Development Agency in July 2011 – December 2012, 13 projects have been implemented with the purpose of contributing in social development by ensuring the participation of disadvantaged groups who are subjected to social exclusion in economic and social life and their integration with the society. Among the target audience of these projects are disabled people, women, unemployed young people, young people who are inclined to substance abuse and Romani people. In relation to social inclusion of these groups, activities have been carried out such as providing occupational training to increase their employability, providing environment for protection against violence, rehabilitating the disabled persons and organising events for raising awareness in relation to substance abuse.

The Social Development Support Program (SOGEP), which has been run by the Development Agencies since 2019, is a social development program that aims to respond quickly to issues such as poverty and unemployment in these regions, and the needs of the changing social structure, to strengthen the nutrient capital of our disadvantaged regions and to support the process of social integration. The aim of the Social Development Support Program is to mobilize local dynamics in the provinces where it is implemented, to eliminate social problems arising from poverty, migration and urbanization, to respond to the needs arising from the changing social structure, to enable the disadvantaged segments of the society to participate more actively in economic and social life, to increase employability, to promote social inclusion  to support social entrepreneurship and innovation and to popularise social responsibility practices.

Social Inclusion Project Support Programme was carried out within the framework of 2013 Youth Projects Support Programme which was carried out by the Ministry of Youth and Sports. In that respect, “social inclusion” projects of universities were supported by the Ministry of Youth and Sports. The Social Inclusion Programme aims to increase the participation and adaptation of the young people, who are disadvantaged due to social, economic and physical barriers, medical problems, geographical factors and education needs, in all areas of social life; support the social adaptation of young people who are excluded from social life and make them an organic part of the social structure; use social, cultural and economic differences as a connective means; encourage voluntary work and increase volunteering consciousness.

In addition, a total of 100 “social cohesion” projects from 2012 to 2020 were supported by the Ministry of Youth and Sports.

Within the scope of the "Do Not Close the Doors" project by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, social events are held in addition to providing guidance and consultancy services for the detainees, convicts and obligated persons in Penitentiary Institutions and Youth Detention Centres with the aim of preventing them from leaving social life during the period when their freedom is restricted, facilitating their adaptation to life when they regain their freedom, and preventing them from committing crimes again.

Funding

Public organisations and institutions as well as Municipalities which carry out Social Inclusion programmes or provide grants in that respect are funded by an allowance allocated from the General Budget. In addition, there are numerous projects funded by EU under the title of social inclusion and combatting social exclusion.

Quality assurance

Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Ministry of Family and Social Services, Ministry of National Education, Department of Strategy and Budget of the Presidency and Ministry of Foreign Affairs Directorate for EU Affairs are the leading public organisations which carry out social inclusion programmes and support social inclusion projects. These organisations implement impact evaluation analyses and check the quality of programme outcomes at the end of their programmes and as a result of project support or grant programmes. Within the framework of feedback received from these impact analyses, new programmes and support programmes are prepared and thus a continuous increase is achieved in the quality of the programmes.

The success of the project is measured by checking the indicators, which are determined in the project fiche for the social inclusion projects supported within the framework of EU Pre-accession Assistances, at the end of specified terms. Other than these, external evaluation and monitoring opportunities are used for these projects.