2.5 Cross-border mobility programmes
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For young Germans planning to complete a volunteering placement abroad, the following EU programmes are particularly relevant:
Erasmus+ Youth in Action, here: European Voluntary Service (EVS)
The German National Agency implementing Erasmus+ Youth in Action is JUGEND für Europa. Implementation is monitored by the RAY network - Research-based Analysis and Monitoring of the European Youth Programmes. RAY consists of 36 national agencies and research agency partners. Funding is available for exchanges between young people aged 13 to 30 from various countries. These short-duration exchanges enable young people to develop intercultural skills and experience what it means to be European. According to JUGEND für Europa’s statistics, a total of 15,891 participants attended 536 youth exchanges in 2018.
The European Voluntary Service (EVS) was funded under Erasmus+ until the end of 2017. Since then, European volunteering schemes have been offered under the European Solidarity Corps. According to the German National Agency JUGEND für Europa, in 2018, 446 participants took part in 239 funded EFD projects that had gained approval before the programme expired.
European Solidarity Corps (ESC)
The European Solidarity Corps was introduced with the aim of strengthening solidarity across Europe. It is implemented by JUGEND für Europa, the German National Agency for the ESC. Under the ESC, young people receive funding so they can take part in volunteering activities, group volunteering projects, solidarity projects, internships and jobs. In 2018, 259 volunteers took part in 53 approved volunteering activities and one solidarity project.
EU Aid Volunteers Programme
The EU Aid Volunteers-Programm is aimed at EU citizens aged 18 and over who hold a vocational qualification and who wish to participate in humanitarian aid project. While applicants without any professional experience are welcome, some work experience is usually required. All volunteers are prepared thoroughly for their assignments. The list shows all ongoing projects for the period 2020-2021.
Germany has two accredited sending organisations: the German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, DRK) and the Federal Agency for Technical Relief (Bundesanstalt Technisches Hilfswerk, THW). THW was previously involved in a pilot project known as Volunteers in Capacity Building (VinCaB) in 2012/2013. The project was jointly developed by DRK and THW together with the Red Cross organisations in Bulgaria, Finland, the UK, Croatia, Latvia and the Netherlands plus the civil defence organisations MSB (Netherlands) and DUSZ (Croatia). To date (September 2020) THW has not yet seconded any other volunteers via the EU Aid Volunteers programme. DRK is part of a project known as EU Aid Volunteers supporting resilience of vulnerable communities and capacity building within the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement (VinReCa) (2018-2020). It is implemented in cooperation with ten other Red Cross organisations in Bangladesh, Finland, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, the Philippine, Togo, Ukraine and Viet Nam.
weltwärts, the development volunteer service, is a Federal Government programme and is managed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, BMZ). weltwärts was launched in Germany in 2008 as a volunteering scheme for young people aged between 18 and 28.
The current funding regulations pertaining to the implementation of weltwärts (Förderleitlinie zur Umsetzung des entwicklungspolitischen Freiwilligendienstes weltwärts) came into force on 1 January 2016. They describe the objectives and general terms and conditions of the programme, training and guidance, the so-called South-North component (Süd-Nord-Komponente - a mechanism to facilitate the placement of volunteers from developing countries in Germany), support activities for volunteers and returnees, and legal and financial matters.
The North-South component is available for assignments in countries that are listed in the DAC list of developing countries and regions. In some countries, weltwärts is not available owing to difficult conditions or the security situation on the ground.
In 2019, a total of 3,300 volunteers took part in the North-South component. 68.5% of them were women. They came from the following federal states:
- North Rhine-Westphalia: 734 volunteers
- Baden-Württemberg: 587 volunteers
- Bavaria: 366 volunteers
- Lower Saxony: 359 volunteers
- Hesse: 266 volunteers
- Berlin: 199 volunteers
- Saxony: 152 volunteers
- Schleswig-Holstein: 152 volunteers
- Rhineland-Palatinate: 134 volunteers
- Hamburg: 129 volunteers
- Brandenburg: 69 volunteers
- Thuringia: 52 volunteers
- Saxony-Anhalt: 41 volunteers
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: 30 volunteers
- Bremen and Bremerhaven: 20 volunteers
- Saarland: 18 volunteers
In 2019, most volunteers in the North-South component completed their weltwärts placements in South Africa (352 volunteers), followed by India (301 volunteers), Peru (262 volunteers), Ghana (210 volunteers), Bolivia (202 volunteers), Ecuador (197 volunteers), Tanzania (160 volunteers), Colombia (158 volunteers), Argentina (136 volunteers) and Mexico (119 volunteers). In 2019, 45% of weltwärts volunteering projects in the North-South component took place in Latin America. 37% were in Africa, 17% in Asia, 1% in Eastern Europe and 0.1% in Oceania.
In 2019, weltwärts volunteers in the North-South component worked in the following fields: education (38%), work with children and young people (32%), disadvantaged groups (9%). The remaining volunteers worked in projects concern with environmental and resource protection, health, culture and sports, farming and food security, and human rights, democracy and peace.
The 2018 volunteer survey , which forms part of the weltwärts quality system, had the following outcomes in regard to the target groups specified in the funding guidelines (Förderleitlinie): 82% of interviewed North-South volunteers began their placement immediately after leaving school. 92% had an Abitur qualification (enabling them to enrol at university), while 5% had a technical baccalaureate (Fachabitur) qualification. Around 1.5% of respondents had a recognised or non-recognised disability or impairment. The participation of individuals with disabilities in volunteering schemes remains high up on the agenda of the programme as it develops.
An evaluation of the weltwärts programme in 2010 concluded that a disproportionately large number of weltwärts volunteers hold an Abitur or other university entrance qualification, meaning that many young people remain out of reach. In response, in 2012 weltwärts developed a concept to diversify its volunteer intake and set up three competence centres (Kompetenzzentren) to support weltwärts sending organisations (Entsendeorganisationen) in serving hard-to-reach target groups. These centres are:
- InVia Köln e.V., designed for young people with a vocational qualification who wish to volunteer with weltwärts. The assocation helps sending organisations to increase the share of volunteers with a completed vocational qualification or offering equivalent personal qualifications.
- bezev. e.V., which helps sending organisations to make their volunteering schemes more inclusive for young volunteers with an impairment or disability.
- The competence centre for members of the immigrant community (Kompetenzzentrum Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund, KOMI) was established in June 2017. It is designed to reach out specifically to young people who are members of the immigrant community or are descended from immigrants, identify as people of colour or as new Germans (Neue Deutsche), or are from immigrant families.
Since the end of 2013, weltwärts has also been open to volunteers coming from abroad to work in Germany under the incoming mechanism known as the South-North component (Süd-Nord-Komponente). Following a pilot phase from 2013 through 2016, in 2016 the South-North component was included in the weltwärts programme for good in the funding guidelines (Förderleitilinien).
The number of South-North volunteers has been consistently on the rise, from 130 volunteers in 2013 and 564 volunteers in 2017 to 715 volunteers in 2019. In 2019, 53,6% of volunteers were women. They came from Colombia (56 volunteers), Bolivia (46 volunteers), India (43 volunteers), Peru (42 volunteers), Mexico (40 volunteers), South Africa (40 volunteers), Tanzania (33 volunteers), Uganda (29 volunteers), Argentina (26 volunteers) and Brazil (25 volunteers).
kulturweit, a cultural volunteering programme, is run by the German Commission for UNESCO. It receives funding from the Federal Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt, AA). kulturweit was established in 2009 and is aimed at young people aged 18 to 26. It is based on the Voluntary Social Year (Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr., FSJ) scheme as stipulated in the Act to Promote Youth Voluntary Services (Jugendfreiwilligendienstegesetz).
The unique feature of kulturweit is its focus on cultural and educational policy. Placements are possible in the DAC list of developing countries and regions. In some countries, kulturweit is not available owing to difficult conditions or the security situation on the ground. The organisations that implement kulturweit are:
- German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, DAAD)
- German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, DAI)
- German Commission for UNESCO (Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission, DUK)
- Deutsche Welle (DW)
- Goethe-Institut (GI)
- Pädagogischer Austauschdienst (PAD) in close cooperation with the Central Agency for German Schools Abroad (Zentralstelle für Auslandsschulwesen, ZfA)
The foreign chapters, branch offices and departments of the implementing organisations provide volunteer placements in the countries in question.
The kulturweit magazine contains current statistics. In 2018, 483 young volunteers were placed abroad under kulturweit; 375 of them were women. 284 volunteers had just left school; 169 were university students; 30 were undergoing vocational training, employed or in search of employment. To encourage, e.g., more vocational students to join the programme, kulturweit cooperates with an information and support centre for stays abroad during vocational training (Informations- und Beratungsstelle für Auslandsaufenthalte in der beruflichen Bildung, IBS).
in 2018, most kulturweit volunteers travelled to Latin America (32%), Eastern Europe (28%), Africa (13%) and the CIS states (13%). Fewer volunteered in South-East Asia (6%), Asia (3%), the Middle East (1%) and other countries (2%). Most assignments were completed at the partner organisations of Pädagogischer Austauschdienst (45%), Goethe-Institut (39%), the international offices of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (6%) and the UNESCO National Commissions (6%). The smallest number of assignments were completed at Deutsche Welle’s international offices (3%) and those of the German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut) (1%).
In March 2019, kulturweit was extended to include a new programme focus. Under the subprogramme naturweit, young volunteers can complete placements at UNESCO natural world heritage sites, geoparks and biosphere reserves worldwide, including others, to develop their understanding of the close relationship between humans and the environment.
In 2013, kulturweit adopted reporting guidelines (Leitlinien) entitled “Reporting fairly” (Fair berichten). It aims to assist volunteers in reporting on their experiences responsibly. Fair berichten has been an established part of kulturweit’s educational programme since 2013.
International Youth Voluntary Service (Internationaler Jugendfreiwilligendienst, IJFD)
The International Youth Voluntary Service (Internationaler Jugendfreiwilligendienst, IJFD) was established in late 2010 by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, BMFSFJ). The regulations on the implementation of IJFD (Richtlinie zur Umsetzung des Internationalen Jugendfreiwilligendienstes) dated 20 December 2010 (last amended on 29 May 2020) stipulate the circumstances under which IJFD takes place in regard to volunteers, training and guidance, organisations, places of assignment, agreements, certificates and references, insurance for volunteers, completion of IJFD as an “alternative service” (Anderer Dienst) abroad, and data protection.
IJFD is aimed at young people who upon embarking on their placement have completed full-time compulsory education (depending on the state, aged 15 or 16) and who upon ending it are still under the age of 27. The decision to accept minors on the scheme is taken by the IJFD organisation in question.
An IJFD placement can be completed anywhere in the world, provided the Federal Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt) has not issued a travel warning for the country in question or if there are no other security concerns. IJFD placements are diverse, with volunteers working in the social, cultural, sports or environmental field or in education or peace projects.
The BMFSFJ collects statistics charting the development of the scheme .
IJFD participation in recent years:
Most volunteers are aged between 18 and 24 and are women. In 2019/20, most of them worked in social projects (1580 volunteers) and in education (619 volunteers). Most IJFD volunteers completed a placement in France (407 volunteers), followed by the UK (379 volunteers), Israel (224 volunteers), the US (206 volunteers), New Zealand (107 volunteers), Canada (95 volunteers), Spain (87 volunteers), Italy (84 volunteers), Australia (77 volunteers) and Ireland (56 volunteers). In 2019/20, most IJFD placements were in Europe (1,389 volunteers), with a much smaller number in Asia (408 volunteers), Central and North America (370 volunteers), Australia (188 volunteers), Latin America (137 volunteers) and Africa (124 volunteers).
Organisations wishing to offer an IJFD placement must apply for accreditation with the Federal Office of Family Affairs and Civil Society Functions (Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben, BAFzA). This requires them to be non-profit, a legal entity, domiciled in Germany, and have prior experience of offering volunteer placements abroad. In addition, they must have developed an educational concept and comply with IJFD guidelines. Likewise, the places of assignment abroad to which volunteers are to be seconded must be accredited by BAFzA.
Franco-German Volunteer Service (Deutsch-Französischer Freiwilligendienst)
The Franco-German Volunteer Service (Deutsch-Französischer Freiwilligendienst, DFFD) is offered by the Franco-German Youth Office (Deutsch-Französisches Jugendwerk, DFJW/FGYO) https://www.dfjw.org/. In 2007 DFJW was commissioned by the governments of France and Germany to create a Franco-German volunteer service. Since then, DFJW has coordinated DFFD together with France’s Agence du Service Civique.
DFFD is aimed at young people aged 18 to 25, regardless of educational qualifications or social background. In accordance with DFJW guidelines it aims in particular to reach out to young people who owing to their economic, geographic, educaitonal, social, cultural or health status find it difficult to access schemes such as DFFD or require special needs assistance to do so.
DFFD ties in with France’s Service Civique and most of its activities are also linked with Germany’s International Youth Voluntary Service (Internationaler Jugendfreiwilligendienst, IJFD) .The scheme is mutual in nature – one German and one French volunteer are sent at the same time to the respective other partner country. Over the course of their placement the volunteers take part in a number of accompanying seminars, where they are supervised by a Franco-German team.
Typical areas of assignment for DFFD volunteers are schools, universities, social services, environmental, sports and cultural projects, at regional authorities or at DFJW offices. The application process differs depending on the field of work and in some cases, a certain level of foreign language proficiency may be required.
In 2019/20, 359 young people completed a DFFD volunteer placement. 153 of them were sent from Germany to France. In 2018/19 the equivalent numbers were 366 and 167, respectively.
In 2019/20, most DFFD volunteers worked in schools (118 in total, 70 of which from Germany) and environmental projects (94, 50 of which from Germany)
As DFFD ties in with France’s Service Civique and Germany’s International Youth Voluntary Service, organisations offering placements must be recognised by the competent authorities. On the French side, organisations must be recognised by France’s Agence du Service Civique. On the German side, the organisations are accredited by the Federal Office of Family Affairs and Civil Society Functions (Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben, BAFzA). The places of assignment in France, too, have to seek BAFzA accreditation. Organisations offering placements are reqwuired to write a report and submit it to the offices in charge of them.
Links to volunteering statistics
- 2018 statistical report of the Learning and Helping Overseas Association (Arbeitskreis Lernen und Helfen in Übersee e.V., AKLHÜ) ‘Volunteers on international volunteering schemes ‘ (Freiwillige in internationalen Freiwilligendiensten)
- 2016 statistical report of the Learning and Helping Overseas Association (Arbeitskreis Lernen und Helfen in Übersee e.V., AKLHÜ) ‘Volunteers on international volunteering schemes ‘ (Freiwillige in internationalen Freiwilligendiensten)
Legal framework applying to foreign volunteers
Volunteers from abroad may apply to Germany’s statutory or government-sponsored volunteering schemes (e.g., Federal Volunteer Service/Bundesfreiwilligendienst, European Solidarity Corps/Europäischer Solidaritätskorps, Voluntary Social or Ecological Year/Freiwilliges Soziales or Ökologisches Jahr, weltwärts, kulturweit, Franco-German Volunteer Service/Deutsch-Französischer Freiwilligendienst). In some cases, special funding is available. The eligibility rules for foreign volunteers vary.
Every year, the Learning and Helping Overseas Association (Arbeitskreis Lernen und Helfen in Übersee e.V., AKLHÜ) compiles statistics on the volunteers who come from abroad to participate in one of Germany’s state-run or state-funded volunteering schemes. In 2018, a total of 4,564 foreign volunteers came to Germany. Most of them completed a Voluntary Social Year (Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr, 1,491 volunteers), a Federal Volunteer Service (Bundesfreiwilligendienst) placement (1,459 volunteers), a European Voluntary Service or European Solidarity Corps placement (829 volunteers) or a weltwärts placement under the South-North component (Süd-Nord Komponente) (612 volunteers). 66% of incoming volunteers are women. Most volunteers come from Madagascar (227 volunteers), Georgia (204 volunteers), Ukraine (192 volunteers), France (182 volunteers), the Russian Federation (179 volunteers), Colombia (158 volunteers), Turkey (149 volunteers), Brazil (136 volunteers) or Indonesia (122 volunteers). Their main fields of activity depending on the programme. While Federal Volunteer Service and Voluntary Social Year volunteers are typically placed in projects for people with a disability, European Voluntary Service or European Solidarity Corps and weltwärts South-North component volunteers are mainly active in child and youth services.
The prerequisites for participating in a volunteering scheme in Germany depend on the criteria of the programme in question. In some cases these prerequisites are developed together with partner organisations abroad. Typically, applicants must provide proof of residency that allows them to work in Germany. Applicants from non-EU countries require a visa which must be applied for in their home country. Visas may be issued specially for participants in a German volunteering scheme. A police clearance certificate from the applicant’s country of domicile may also be required. Depending on the type of placement, applicants may have to demonstrate basic German language skills.
European Solidarity Corps
Young people wishing to volunteer in Germany with the European Solidarity Corps (ESC) must be ordinarily resident in an ESC programme country. Young people from a non-EU country may require a visa; they should verify the applicable visa rules ahead of applying.
All young people participating in the ESC are covered by health insurance during their volunteering activities of the insurance is covered by the European Commission.
Young volunteers travelling to Germany under the South-North component (Süd-Nord-Komponente) of the weltwärts programme must apply for a visa, for which the weltwärts Coordination Office (Koordinierungsstelle) may be able to issue a letter of support to be presented to the German embassy in the applicant’s country of residence. However, these letters are not equivalent to an invitation. These may be issued by the receiving organisations.
Volunteers working in Germany under the South-North component are liable to social insurance contributions in Germany. Formally speaking, they are classed as volunteers under the Federal Volunteer Service (Bundesfreiwilligendienst) as defined in the Federal Volunteer Service Act (Bundesfreiwilligendienstgesetz, BFDG). South-North volunteers are covered by the following types of insurance: statutory social insurance (gesetzliche Sozialversicherung), accident insurance (Unfallversicherung), which is provided by an employers’ liability insurance association (Berufsgenossenschaft), professional liability insurance (Betriebshaftpflichtversicherung), and private liability insurance and accident insurance (Privathaftpflicht- und Unfallversicherung). In some countries, to obtain a visa it may be necessary for applicants to provide proof of travel health insurance for the trip to Germany and back. All social insurance contributions are paid by the host organisation or the volunteers’ place of assignment.
Weltwärts also covers the costs of accommodation and meals, a monthly allowance, travel expenses to the placement site and any vaccinations required to work at the site. In order to make the weltwärts assignment as inclusive as possible, costs for resources, medical care or personal assistance are covered for people with particular needs.
Volunteers with the Franco-German Volunteer Service (Deutsch-Französischer Freiwilligendienst, DFFD) are subject to the funding regulations (Förderrichtlinien) of the Franco-German Youth Office (Deutsch-Französisches Jugendwerk, DFJW/FGYO). Legally speaking, for young French volunteers DFFD is a form of French service civique. It is open to all young people who are ordinarily resident in France, plus to all French citizens who are temporarily not resident in France. Young people who have neither French or another EU nationality may require a visa to enter Germany.
As part of the DFFD scheme, volunteers receive a monthly allowance, in addition to cash or non-cash benefits for accommodation, transport and meals. They are also covered by basic social insurance through the Agence du Service Civique. The sending organisation is responsible for health, accident and liability insurance cover.
Incoming BFD and FSJ/FÖJ
Germany’s Bundesfreiwilligendienst (Federal Volunteer Service) and youth voluntary services (Jugendfreiwilligendienste) (Voluntary Social Year or Voluntary Ecological Year) are open to young people from abroad, too. A condition of participation is that volunteers’ subsistence is guaranteed without recourse to public funds. Under Section 19 (c) para. 1 of the Residence Act (Aufenthaltsgesetz), they may be granted a residence permit specifically for their placement under these volunteering schemes. Foreign volunteers are covered by the place of assignment through statutory pension, accident, health, nursing care and unemployment insurance. They receive pocket money as well as cash or non-cash benefits for accommodation and meals and, where necessary, work clothing.
Links to further information
- Information provided by Bundesarbeitskreis FSJ on volunteering in Germany for foreign nationals
- Hielscher, Hanna; Eberhardt, Julia Bettina (2015): Research project “Internationalisation of the voluntary services FSJ, FÖJ and BFD: The potential of incoming volunteers for Germany”. Mid-term results and reality check (Forschungsprojekt „Internationalisierung der Freiwilligendienste FSJ, FÖJ und BFD: Das Potential von Incoming für Deutschland“: Zwischenergebnisse und Praxis-Check.) In: Voluntaris 2015/1: p. 115-119.