Abitur: German secondary school diploma qualifying for university admission.
Assistierte Ausbildung: In-company vocational training that includes additional support for trainees such as German language lessons, extra tuition, etc.
Aufnahmeorganisationen: Organisations that host volunteers.
Ausbildungsbegleitende Hilfen: Provided by an education provider to young people in need of further assistance in order to complete their training (e.g., extra tuition, help with preparing for exams, mediation).
Ausbildungsförderung: Financial assistance according to the Federal Training Assistance Act (Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz, BAföG).
Berufsausbildungsbeihilfe: Financial assistance provided by the employment agencies to young people who move out of the parental home to complete a course of vocational training but whose pay does not suffice to cover the cost of, e.g., rent, travel home and living expenses.
Berufsschule: Vocational schools provide apprentices with the academic part of the dual system of vocational training (duale Berufsausbildung).
Betriebsvereinbarungen: An agreement between an employer and a works council (Betriebsrat) – the body that represents the workers in the establishment in question – concerning certain matters relating to that establishment.
Direktverfahren: Procedure used by organisations that are unable to submit their applications and/or reports via central offices (Zentralstellen) or a state-specific procedure (Länderverfahren); instead, they submit them directly to the Federal Ministry responsible for youth.
Duales System/Duale Berufsausbildung: Combines theoretical training in a vocational school (Berufsschule) with learning at the workplace.
Eigenständige Jugendpolitik: Also known as modern youth policy. New holistic political approach that tries to create a balance between the requirements of society towards youth and the needs and interests of young people.
Einstiegsqualifizierung: Preparatory paid traineeship of between six and twelve months that is completed prior to an apprenticeship.
Entsendeorganisationen: Organisations that send volunteers.
Förderschule: School establishment for pupils whose development cannot, or not adequately, be assisted at mainstream schools on account of adverse social circumstances or a physical, intellectual or emotional disability.
Freie Träger: Also known as providers of non-public-sector child and youth services (Träger der freien Jugendhilfe). These are organisations that provide child and youth services but do not operate in the public sector. They can provide services under Book 8 of the Social Code (SGB VIII) that are not the express reserve of public-sector service providers.
Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung: Germany has compulsory health insurance. Statutory health insurance is part of the country’s social insurance system. Insured individuals are entitled to a comprehensive range of standardised services regardless of their financial situation. The statutory health insurance contributions they pay are income-dependent in line with the solidarity principle (Solidaritätsprinzip).
Hauptschulabschluss: Is awarded after completing year 9. It may be gained at the less academic type of lower secondary school (Hauptschule), but can also be obtained at other types of lower secondary school. It is often used to gain access to Germany’s dual system of vocational training (duales System). In some federal states, after year 9 pupils can obtain an additional qualification known as a qualified lower secondary school qualification (qualifizierender Hauptschulabschluss); after year 10, they may obtain what is known as an extended lower secondary school qualification (erweiterter Hauptschulabschluss).
Interkulturelle Öffnung der Jugendverbandsarbeit: Refers to the involvement and participation of young members of the immigrant community in youth organisations as well as improved and stronger cooperation with young immigrant community organisations.
Jobcenter: Institution where public-sector employment agencies (Agenturen für Arbeit) and municipal organisations work together to provide basic security benefits for job seekers (Grundsicherung für Arbeitsuchende).
Jugendamt/Jugendämter: Central child and youth services institution that is tasked with providing, or ensuring the provision of, the functions and services stipulated in Social Code Book VIII (SGB VIII).
Jugendamt-Hopping: Occurs when families whose children’s welfare is at risk relocate to the catchment area of another youth office in an attempt to remove themselves from the reach of their original office. Under the 2012 Federal Child Protection Act, when a family relocates, the former competent youth office must provide the new competent youth office with all the information it needs to provide effective protection to children. This rule was introduced to prevent office hopping.
Kinder- und Jugendhilfe: Includes all educational and development services targeted at children and young people, including youth work or child-rearing assistance for families. Child and youth services are outlined in the Social Code Book VIII and generally provided by social services and youth offices.
Kinder- und Jugendplan des Bundes: Financial scheme of the German federal government to fund and support measures and activities in all areas of child and youth services at federal level as e. g. child and youth work, extracurricular youth education (civic cultural youth education, youth work in sports, work of youth organisations, international youth work), youth social work and integration, support of children in kindergartens and day care, support for families, young people, parents and other legal guardians etc.
Länderverfahren: Procedure used by organisations that are not affiliated with any central offices (Zentralstelle) to submit their applications and/or reports to the supreme youth authority in a given state or a designated office. The supreme state youth authority verifies the applications and submits them either individually or collectively, together with its opinions, as well as the reports, to the Federal Ministry.
Landesjugendplan/-pläne: Financial scheme of the federal states to fund and support measures and activities in all areas of child and youth services at regional and local level as e. g. child and youth work, extracurricular youth education (civic cultural youth education, youth work in sports, work of youth organisations, international youth work), youth social work and integration, support of children in kindergartens and day care, support for families, young people, parents and other legal guardians etc.
Lehrerkonferenzen: Body of participation in the school sector where teaching staff takes decisions on instruction and education. It is composed of all the teachers in a particular school.
Migrationshintergrund: An individual is considered to have an migration background if they did not have German nationality from birth, or if one or both of their parents did not.
Mittlerer Schulabschluss: Is awarded after completing year 10. It may be obtained at Realschule (a type of secondary school), but under certain circumstances also at other schools offering lower secondary education. It is also available to pupils pursuing a vocational education programme at the upper secondary level. Also known as “Realschulabschluss”.
Pflichtpraktikum: A compulsory traineeship according to the applicable study or examination regulations (Studien- und Prüfungsordnung).
Schulabbrecher: Term commonly used to refer to young people who leave general education without a certificate of general education as a minimum, which, in Germany, would be a general lower secondary school qualification (Hauptschulabschluss), obtained after year 9.
Schulkonferenzen: Additional organ at schools that governs cooperation between the head staff and teachers, pupils and parents and, if applicable, external cooperation partners.
Schulsozialarbeit: Comprises a variety of social education- and social work-related responsibilities and activities in schools that also involve teachers and parents.
Sozialgesetzbuch: Legal framework covering the main aspects of Germany’s system of social security, including training promotion, employment promotion and unemployment protection, statutory health, accident, long-term care and pensions insurance, housing benefit, child and parental benefit, and social welfare. The Social Code is currently divided into 12 books (SGB I – XII).
Sozialversicherungspflichtige Beschäftigung: A job that requires the employee to make social insurance contributions (sozialversicherungspflichtiger Beschäftiger).
Spätaussiedler: Defined by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge) as ethnic Germans from the successor states of the former Soviet Union and from other Eastern European states. By means of a special acceptance process they are entitled to live in Germany.
Vollzeitschulpflicht: A form of general compulsory education that as a rule applies to all children aged six and above. It usually lasts nine years, although some states stipulate ten years.
Zentralstellenverfahren: Procedure by which organisations submit an application or report to the central office with which they are affiliated. The central office then submits a set of applications together with its respective opinions, as well as the reports, to the Federal Ministry.
Links to other glossaries
- Social Europe from A to Z. A glossary of basic sociopolitical terms. By the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales).
- Glossaries by the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
- on schools (Schulen),
- on Vocational Education (Berufliche Bildung),
- on universities (Hochschulen),
- on educational background (Bildungsstand).
- Vocational education and training terminology in German and English – a glossary for VET specialists (Berufsbildungsbegriffe Deutsch-Englisch. Terminologiesammlung für Berufsbildungsfachleute) By the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung).
- Glossaries by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge)
- on migration-related terms (in German),
- on migration-related terms (in English).
- Glossary on education. By the Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz).
- Guiding Concepts of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. By the Federal Centre for Health Education (Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung).
- Social Security at a Glance 2017. Brochure that explains social security-related terms. By the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales).
- Key terms of child and youth services German-English (and further languages). Edited by IJAB - International Youth Service of the Federal Republic of Germany.
- Youth Work Translator - Online-Glossary containing over 1 000 terms from child and youth services and international youth work. Can be used to research terms in German, Greek, English and Chinese and thus supports communication with international partners in these languages. Edited by IJAB - International Youth Service of the Federal Republic of Germany.