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Denmark

Denmark

6. Education and Training

6.5 Cross-border learning mobility

On this page
  1. Policy framework
  2. Main cross-border mobility programmes for students in formal education
  3. Promoting mobility in the context of non-formal learning, and of youth work
  4. Quality assurance

Policy framework

Information and guidance

In Denmark, gribverden.dk provides information and guidance to higher education students on outward learning mobility. 

Furthermore, higher education institutions provide personalised services to students on outward mobility.

 

Foreign language preparation

ISCED 0–3: Act on Primary and Lower Secondary Education (Folkeskoleloven, LBK nr 1396 af 28/09/2020)

  • One compulsory foreign language learning (English) from the 1st to the 9th/10th grade.
  • Two compulsory foreign language learning (German/French and English) from the 5th to the 9th/10th grade.

 

Upper secondary: Act on General Upper Secondary Educations (Lov om de gymnasiale uddannelser, LBK nr 1428 af 28/09/2020). Students attending upper secondary education must all take English as a compulsory foreign language until the age of 18. This is true for the following programmes: STX (general) and HTX (technical). In one programme, HHX (business), English is compulsory until the age of 19.

 

Students attending upper secondary education must all have a second foreign language for at least two years in the three-year programmes: STX (general) and HHX (business). In HTX (technical), there is no second foreign language, so these students can finish studying their second foreign language at the age of 16, before entering upper secondary education.

In the two-year HF programme, English is compulsory at B level (intermediate level).

 

Vocational education and training (VET): Act on Vocational Upper Secondary Educations (Lov om erhvervsuddannelser, LBK nr 1395 af 28/09/2020)

Foreign languages are not compulsory for all vocational education and training (VET) pupils. The duration of a VET education programme is usually 3–5.5 years. Approximately 35 VET programmes have a foreign language (English) out of a total of 102 programmes.

There is no second foreign language in any VET programme.

 

Portability of student support

Act on State Educational Grant (Lov om statens uddannelsesstøtte, Lbk nr 1037 af 30/08/2017)

The Danish state educational support (SU) is a study grant that can be awarded for credit and degree mobility.

In order to obtain SU for a whole study programme abroad, the young person must fulfil the general conditions of being granted SU. Also, the Danish education institution must accept the study period abroad as part of the current Danish study programme. Support for study programmes outside the Nordic countries is granted for a maximum of 4 years.

If a student is entitled to SU, the student is also entitled to obtain a student loan.

In order to be eligible for support to a general upper secondary education programme in a Nordic country, the education programme must give access to higher education programmes in Denmark. Furthermore, the Danish Agency for Higher Education and Science has minimum requirements for certain subjects.

It is also possible to apply for a state educational grant for general upper secondary education programmes outside the Nordic countries. The following education programmes are approved for support:

  • International Baccalaureate Diploma
  • Option international du Baccalaureat
  • European higher general examination programme at the European Schools
  • Higher general examination programme at the Duborg School in Flensburg or the A.P. Møller School in Schleswig

 

Students can also apply for a tuition fee grant.

 

Study abroad scholarship scheme (Udlandsstipendieordningen, Lbk nr 1037 af 30/08/2017)

Students who wish to study abroad can apply for a scholarship for up to two years. The scholarship is intended to partly or wholly cover the tuition fees at certain study programmes in other countries.

There is a maximum limit to the study abroad scholarship. The maximum amount of the scholarship corresponds to the sum received by a Danish education institution for a corresponding study programme in Denmark. Should the tuition fee at the foreign education institution be higher than the Danish scholarship, the young person must pay the remainder of the fee him/herself or apply for a loan (udlandsstudielån). The loan will cover the difference between the Danish scholarship and the tuition fee.

For portability restrictions, see the Mobility Scoreboard.

Special support during studies (SPS; see section 6.6) can be awarded for credit and degree mobility.

 

Disadvantaged learners

There is no national target for the participation of students with a low socio-economic background in mobility programmes. In Denmark, mainstream general support (SU) is provided to more than 50% of students.

 

Recognition of learning outcomes

Since 2001, the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) has been implemented in Denmark. This is evident from the ministerial order on exams in some higher education programmes (BEK. nr. 1021 af 20/11/2000). In 2021, the ECTS system is still in place, for example at the universitites.

 

Recognition of qualifications

In Denmark, the Act on assessment of qualifications obtained abroad, lov om vurdering af udenlandske uddannelseskvalifikationer, LBK nr 579 af 01/06/2014) provides better opportunities for the recognition of qualifications obtained abroad.

In Denmark, there is no additional recognition procedure for higher education qualifications issues in EHEA countries.

 

Main cross-border mobility programmes for students in formal education

Mobility in upper secondary education programmes

The Nordic Agreement on Co-operation on Upper Secondary School Education gives all young Nordic citizens the right to take part in upper secondary education in another Nordic country. The agreement commits the countries to give learners from other Nordic countries access to secondary education under the same conditions as nationals. The agreement also guarantees that the countries will not seek compensation for educating each other’s students, as this could constitute a direct obstacle to freedom of movement for students in upper secondary education in the Nordic region.

The Nordic countries also undertake to work to recognise education obtained through studies in another Nordic country.

In order to be eligible for support to a general upper secondary education programme in a Nordic country, the leaving certificate must give access to higher education programmes in Denmark. Furthermore, the Danish Agency for Institutions and Educational Grants demand a certain level in specific subjects.

It is also possible to apply for a state educational grant for general upper secondary education programmes outside the Nordic countries. The following education programmes are approved for support:

  • International Baccalaureate Diploma
  • Option international du Baccalaureat
  • European higher general examination programme at the European Schools
  • Higher general examination programme at the Duborg school in Flensburg or the A.P. Moller school in Schleswig

Students may also apply for a tuition fee grant.

Work placements abroad (PIU - Praktik i udlandet)

The PIU programme aims to further internationalisation in the field of vocational education by giving VET students the opportunity to complete either part or all of their traineeship abroad as part of their Danish education. The PIU programme funds student mobility for VET students when the Danish education institution has pre-approved the training agreement.

The amount of funding depends on whether the student has an education/training agreement with a Danish enterprise or not.

When the student has entered into a training agreement with a Danish enterprise:

  • The study period abroad is defined as a placement.
  • The Danish enterprise enters into an agreement with an enterprise abroad.
  • The student must be paid according to the Danish collective agreement. If the trainee salary is lower in the destination country, the Danish employer must cover the difference in the salary.
  • The Danish employer must cover the travel expenses. The Employers’ Reimbursement Fund (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag, AUB) partly/fully reimburse the employers’ expenses in relation to the study abroad period.
  • The study abroad period must be at least one month.

 

When the student has no training agreement with a Danish enterprise:

  • The student must find an enterprise abroad and enter into a training agreement.
  • The Danish education institution must approve the enterprise and the training according to Danish Law.
  • The student and enterprise enter into a training agreement.
  • The student is paid according to local agreements.
  • The AUB covers travel and moving expenses.
  • The AUB covers 50% of the housing expenses, maximum DKK 1800 each month.
  • Salary and travel expenses when the student takes the school-based part of the VET programme.
  • The total amount of funding is 32 000 DKK a year.

Each year, about 1 500 vocational education and traning (VET) students are granted a mobility award from the PIU programme.

 

Nordplus

Nordplus is the Nordic Council of Ministers’ mobility and networking programme in the area of lifelong learning. The Nordplus programme offers financial support to a variety of educational cooperations between partners in the area of lifelong learning from the eight participating countries in the Baltic and Nordic regions. Nordplus consists of five sub-programmes: Junior, Higher Education, Adult, Horizontal, and Nordic Languages.

The Nordplus Junior programme makes it possible to apply for grants for cooperation with schools in the Nordic and Baltic countries, such as project partnerships, pupil and teacher exchanges, and work experience for pupils. Nordplus Junior is aimed at preschools and primary and secondary schools, both theoretical and vocational programmes, as well as vocational schools/apprenticeships.

Extended schools in arts and culture that are part of a national or regional school syllabus can apply as coordinators. Pupils, teachers, and other educational staff can participate. Funding is available for various activities, including mobility activities: preparatory visits, class exchanges, pupil exchanges, and work experience.

The Nordplus Higher Education Programme is a mobility and network programme in the higher education sector at bachelor and master’s levels for the Nordic and Baltic countries.

The aim of the programme is to create a collaboration between the institutions that participate in the programme through exchanges, experience, good practice, and innovative results. The programme also supports collaboration between higher education institutions and other organisations.

The programme supports a range of activities, for instance student and teacher mobility in universities and university colleges. Individuals cannot apply for grants directly from the Nordplus administration but can participate in the activities via their home institutions.

The programme supports different types of mobility:

  • Long-term student mobility from 3 to 12 months
  • Short-term student mobility from 1 to 2 months
  • Express mobility under 1 month

 

Mobility in higher education programmes

Nordplus Higher Education

The Nordplus Higher Education Programme is a mobility and network programme in the higher education sector, on bachelor and master levels, for the Nordic and Baltic countries.

Individuals cannot apply for grants directly from the Nordplus administration but they can participate in the activities via their home institutions.

 

Erasmus+ 2021-2027

As of December 31 2020, the Easmus+ 2014-2020-programme is coming to an end. In the new Erasmus+ programme 2021-2027, mobility remains essential, and the programme will increase international mobility and cooperation by extending international dimensions to new sectors. By March 2021, information about the new proramme was yet to be released.

 

Erasmus+ 2014-2020

KA2: Strategic partnership – Vocational education and training (VET), School Education, and Higher Education

The action is about enabling organisations to work together in order to improve their provisions for learners and share innovative practices. The projects funded under this action focus on sharing, developing and transferring innovative practices in education, training and youth provisions between participating countries. With regard to mobility in education and training, the following fields are relevant: higher education, vocational education and training, school education and adult education.

Strategic partnerships may also organise transnational learning, teaching and training activities of individual, provided they bring added value to the achievement of the projects’ objectives. The transnational learning activities are:

  • Blended mobility of learners (all fields of education)
    • 5 days-2 months of physical mobility
  • Short-term exchanges of groups of pupils (school education, VET)
    • 3 days-2 months
  • Long-term study mobility of pupils (school education).
    • 2-12 months
  • Intensive Study Programmes (Higher Education)
    • 5 days-2 months

 

KA1 mobility – Vocational education and training (VET): VET institutions can apply for funding for the exchange of students and staff. The purpose of the mobility is to promote professional, linguistic, and personal competences and skills among students and staff. The length of the mobility is between 2 weeks and 12 months for students.

KA1 mobility – higher education: Higher education institutions can apply for funding for student mobility (outgoing) with the objective of strengthening the students’ academic and international competences and skills. The mobility can be either an internship of 2–12 months or a study abroad period of 3–12 months. Only students enrolled in a higher education programme at an education institution with an Erasmus Charter for Higher Education can participate. The programme funds living expenses.

KA1 mobility: The international dimension of the programme supports incoming and outgoing mobility between Denmark and Erasmus+ partner countries. The programme primarily funds incoming mobility from partner countries. The programme funds travel and living expenses.

KA1 mobility – Erasmus Mundus joint master degrees: An international consortium of higher education institutions who offer higher education at master’s level can apply for funding for a study programme. The objective of the programme is to strengthen the quality of European higher education programmes and strengthen the competences among students enrolled in the study programme. Students at master’s level can participate. The Erasmus+ programme funds administration of the programme and a number of scholarships for students. The programme funds individual travel and living expenses as well as course fees.

For further details, see the Erasmus+ Programme Guide.

 

Scholarship to study abroad (Udlandsstipendieordningen)

Students who want to study abroad can apply for a scholarship lasting up to two years. The scholarship aims to partly or wholly cover the tuition fees at certain study programmes in other countries. The scholarship covers study periods and whole study programmes at master’s level. The amount corresponds at most to the sum received by a Danish educational institution for a corresponding study programme in Denmark. Should the tuition fees at the foreign educational institution be higher than the Danish scholarship, the young person must pay the remainder of the fee him/herself or apply for a loan.

Study periods abroad (credit mobility) that form part of a Danish study programme. The study period abroad must be fully credited by the Danish education institution. The study abroad scholarship can be awarded for up to two years. However, the student can only receive the scholarship for a maximum of one year if he/she wishes to study abroad in connection with a short-cycle education programme.

Whole study programmes at master’s level abroad (degree mobility). To obtain a scholarship for a complete study programme at master’s level, the programme must be included in one of the lists of approved study programmes (fast track list or the special list concerning studies of an artistic or cultural nature (listen over kunstneriske og kulturelle uddannelser)) and it must be approved as eligible for the student grant (SU).

The Danish Agency for Higher Education and Science administers the stipend. On the agency’s website, young people can find information regarding the general conditions required in order to be awarded the scholarship for studies abroad.

There is a maximum limit to the study abroad scholarship.

 

Youth Card transportation discount

Students living in Denmark and studying in the region of Oresund in Sweden or in the Flensburg region in Germany may be entitled to a discount on the daily transportation to the education institutions. Students must be eligible for an ordinary Youth Card and the education programme in Sweden or Germany must be approved as eligible for the state educational grant by the Danish Agency for Higher Education and Science.

 

Denmark–USA programme

The Denmark–USA programme aims to support transatlantic cooperation within technical and vocational training, and to support the internationalisation and exchange of best practices to benefit the further development of education systems and practices.

The programme provides grants to students, teachers, and leaders from Danish vocational colleges as well as affiliated board and committee members to visit community colleges and companies for education and training purposes. In addition, the programme also provides grants to staff members from American community colleges guest-lecturing in Denmark.

The programme is based on a memorandum of understanding between the Danish Ministry of Education and the US Department of Education, signed in 2000. The memorandum has been extended several times.

The programme funds the following activities:

  • Study visits to American community colleges or internships at American enterprises.
  • Visits for teachers, school leaders, and board member associated with VET education institutions.

All stays must give full credit in terms of the Danish study programme. The student must have entered into an agreement with a community college. When students wish to do an internship at an American enterprise, an agreement must be made that establishes the length of the stay, the tasks in the enterprise, etc.

The programme provides funding for travel expenses, accommodation, insurance, and visa, but not daily allowance. The funding cannot exceed the actual documented expenses.

For study abroad periods of four weeks and above, students can be entitled to a maximum of 10 000 DKK. For study periods of two weeks, the student can be entitled to 6000 DKK.

In 2017, 120 students were granted a mobility award from the DK–USA programme.

 

Fulbright

Fulbright Denmark is based on a bi-national treaty from 1951 between Denmark and the USA. Both governments support the work economically through annual allocations on their state budgets, and today Fulbright Denmark receives additional support – financial and in-kind – from many other places. Fulbright Denmark offers grants to both Danes going to the USA and Americans coming to Denmark.

 

Grants for Danes:

  • Fulbright for graduate and PhD students
  • Fulbright for scholars (postdoc, assistant professors, associate professors, or professors at a higher Danish education institution).

Since the Fulbright Program began in Denmark in 1951, over 3500 Danes and Americans have participated, working on mutual understanding and sparring with the world’s elite within their fields. Over the last 20 years, the number of annual scholarships awarded by Fulbright Denmark to Danes and Americans has varied between 25 and 50.

UArctic:

The University of the Arctic (UArctic) is a cooperative network of over 150 universities, colleges, and other organisations committed to higher education and research in the North. The members share resources, facilities, and expertise to build post-secondary education programmes that are relevant and accessible to northern students.

The overall goal is to create a strong, sustainable circumpolar region by empowering northerners and northern communities through education and shared knowledge.

The Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education cooperates with UArctic about funding projects related to research and educational activities in and about the Arctic. UArctic members from Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands can apply for funding through advertised calls. 

 

North2North mobility programme

UArctic manages the mobility programme North2North, which is available to both researchers and students. The purpose of the grant is to promote mobility to and from the Kingdom of Denmark between UArctic North2North member institutions. The grant supports mobility in connection with educational, research, and networking activities related to northern issues.

 

Scholarships

With the purpose of developing and sharing knowledge of the highest quality on higher education, research and innovation, the Danish Agency for Higher Education and Science (DAFSHE) has entered into a partnership agreement with three American universities. The Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education covers the expenses of visiting researchers for a duration of 3-12 months. Furthermore, researchers may apply for a travel grant of DKK 15.000.agreements consist of:

  • UC Berkeley (CITRIS) (3-6 months)
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (6-12 months)
  • Center for Interface Science and Catalysis at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SUNCAT) (6-12 months)

The terms of the partnership will be renegotiated in 2021.

 

Promoting mobility in the context of non-formal learning, and of youth work

Support of mobility in the context of non-formal learning and youth work takes place through the Erasmus+ programme, and particularly through Erasmus+ Youth in Action (KA1: youth exchange and mobility for youth workers, KA2: transnational youth initiatives, and KA3: Support for policy reform) and the European Solidarity Corps. For more information, see the Erasmus+ programme guide and the European Solidarity Corps Guide. New guides for the programmes are not yet available (March 2021).

The Nordplus programmes also award grants for mobility in the context of non-formal learning:

Nordplus Horizontal supports innovative projects and networks spanning more than one education sector in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Any institution or organisation working with education and lifelong learning can apply. Grants are awarded for a wide spectrum of themes and activities, for instance entrepreneurship, integration, active citizenship, environment, art, and culture. The programme does not support individual mobility unless such mobility is linked to project and network activities.

Nordplus Nordic Languages supports institutions and organisations in the field of Nordic languages in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The programme is aimed at all levels of education and is open for institutions, organisations, and actors interested in working with or promoting the Nordic languages. The programme focuses on activities that improve language comprehension of the Nordic languages among children and young people, for instance methods of teaching, the development of teaching plans, language technology projects, etc. Nordplus Nordic Languages does not award grants for individual mobility except for preparatory visits to support the planning and preparation of projects and applications. The length of the preparatory visit is a maximum of five days, and up to two representatives from each involved organisation can participate.

Nordplus Adult includes all parts of adult learning – formal, non-formal, and informal learning, whether in the context of general or vocational education in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The objective of the programme is to generate development of the sector. Among other things, the programme awards grants for mobility projects. The exchange of adult learners must be between Nordic/Baltic institutions and organisations. The aim of the exchange is to provide the participants with new competences and/or professional skills and insight into other cultures and learning environments.

The Danish Youth Council (DUF) administers two programmes funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark.

  • DUF administers a programme supported by the Danish–Arab Partnership Programme (DAPP) Youth Pool. This programme supports the Ambassadors for Dialogue in Denmark, Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia, and a partnership between the KFUM scout organisation in Denmark and the Tunisian scouts.
  • The other programme is the Global Youth Programme. All DUF member organisations are eligible for a pool for international partnership projects. The partnerships must strengthen democracy, youth influence and participation and organisational life. Partner organisations in the countries on the OECD’s DAC list can apply together with the Danish organisation. Currently, around 50 partnerships are funded.

 

For more information, see section 9.6.

 

Quality assurance

Mechanisms

In Denmark, no uniform quality assurance system for any of the mentioned programmes exists. Each mobility programme has its own system and is subject to the respective rules and regulations of the funding providers.

The quality of projects funded by Erasmus+ and European Solidarity Corps is assured on a regular basis according to criteria defined by the European Commission. The quality of the projects is assured in the application process due to pre-defined award criteria (e.g. the project design and how applicants will ensure the outcome and impact of the project). Furthermore, in some sectors, an accreditation of the organisation is necessary prior to the application process. For instance, the Erasmus Charter for Higher Education is a prerequisite for all higher education institutions in a programme country that wish to participate in higher education mobility projects, and any organisation (see Erasmus+ programme guide for detailed information regarding organisation country) wishing to send or receive volunteers or coordinate a volunteering project must be accredited (Erasmus+ volunteering charter).

Furthermore, the national agency can carry out technical and financial checks and audits in relation to the use of grants, as well as the monitoring of projects on the spot. Furthermore, in some actions, organisations are asked to submit an interim report, and all beneficiaries are obliged to submit a final report, and if the activities generating the grant are not implemented or if the quality of the realised activities/outputs is of insufficient quality, the funding can be reduced.

Nordplus

Already in the award process, quality assurance mechanisms take place according to pre-defined award criteria. Furthermore, all parties receiving funding from Nordplus must submit a final report. The final report must answer questions concerning how the activities were carried out, how the results were obtained, and how the grant was used. For projects longer than 18 months, an interim report must be submitted halfway through the project period. The final report is divided into a contents section and a financial section. The financial report must be authorised by a finance unit of the participating institution or organisation.

Furthermore, Nordplus can carry out follow-up visits and audits in relation to the use of grant.

Small mobility programmes

The small mobility programmes have a variety of quality assurance mechanism. Often, beneficiaries are obliged to document the realised activities. This could be in the form of a final report, and for longer projects also an interim report. The final report may consist of an activity report (realised activities and how the results were obtained) and a financial report (how the grant was used). Some programmes oblige beneficiaries to hand in accounting reports, some of which should be verified by an auditor.

Furthermore, the quality assurance mechanism may be in the form of an approval of the study abroad period by the Danish education institution, for instance in the Danish Work Placements Abroad (PIU) programme, where the Danish education institution must approve the training agreement.

For quality assurance in the DUF programme Dialogue Ambassador Corps, see section 9.4.

Lastly, in 2016, Iris Group conducted an evaluation of the two arctic programmes UArctic and North2North. The evaluation of the programmes was based on 19 interviews (e.g. with project owners, rejected project-applicants, and international coordinators) and desk-based research. The evaluation focused on the quality of the programmes and not the learning outcome of the participants.