Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website.
Skip to main content
European Commission logo


EACEA National Policies Platform


6. Education and Training

6.5 Cross-border learning mobility

Last update: 2 April 2024
On this page
  1. Policy framework
  2. Main cross-border mobility programmes for students in formal education
  3. Promoting mobility in the context of non-formal learning, and of youth work
  4. Quality assurance

Policy framework

The Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről) states that 'a Hungarian citizen may study abroad without permission and is able to complete his/her education in a foreign educational institution'. 

The 'Mid-term Strategy of Grade Change in Higher Education'

In 2016, the Hungarian Government published a mid-term strategy named 'Grade Change in Higher Education' (Fokozatváltás a felsőoktatásban, középtávú szakpolitikai stratégia) which is a document about the problems of the Hungarian higher education system, and it sets development goals.

In this document, the internationalization of higher education also appears: the government would like to invite more students from abroad to Hungary. Between 2010 and 2015, the proportion coming from abroad increased by 53% among full-time students.

There is also an increasing number of Hungarian students who travel and learn abroad due to international mobility programmes (like Tempus, CEEPUS, Socrates/Erasmus, LLP, Erasmus+). The government also emphasises opportunities for part-time training or mobility for ethnic students in their mother country. 

The government's main aim is to encourage participation in international mobility programmes. It is important (according to the strategy) to make it possible to get qualifications that fit better to the requirements of the labour market. Furthermore, higher education institutions must become competitive in the international higher education system.

The Action Plan 2021-2024. for the strategy

The Government published the Action Plan 2021-2024. for the 'Grade Change in Higher Education' strategy. As far as the development of international mobility programmes is concerned, the main responsible actors for the implementation are the Ministry of Culture and Innovation (Kulturális és Innovációs Minisztérium) and Tempus Public Foundation (Tempus Közalapítvány), and are jointly funded by the European Union and the Hungarian state budget. There are 7 main measures for the objective of developing international mobility programmes and the deadline is until the end of 2024:

  • supporting socially, economically and locally disadvantaged students, students with disabilities or Roma students in higher education to gain experience abroad through international mobility,
  • supporting teachers and other staff in higher education to participate in international mobility programmes, establishing joint educational programmes with universities abroad,
  • developing existing programmes for the internationalisation of higher education,
  • supporting activities (such as marketing and networking capacities) related to the hosting of international students,
  • promoting the employment of international university teachers,
  • supporting international mobility activities.

For the first point, the Action Plan provides financial support, mentoring programmes to prevent drop-out of disadvantaged students, specific professional support service and help the students to prepare for the mobility programme with language learning, intercultural information and support and learning and mobility guidance ('Fokozatváltás a felsőoktatásban középtávú szakpolitikai stratégia 2016.' 2021-2024. évekre szóló cselekvési terve).

Main cross-border mobility programmes for students in formal education

One of the most significant mobility programmes of Tempus Public Foundation (Tempus Közalapítvány) is Erasmus+, which aims to increase the quality of education in institutions involved in the programme by supporting the professional development of students and teachers. (For more information about Tempus Public Foundation, see sub-chapter 9.4.) Institutions participating in the programme must draw up a 'European Development Plan', which defines the institutional mobility strategy. The target groups of the programme are, among others:

  • university students, college students,
  • vocational students,
  • professionals working in education.

The Campus Mundi scholarship (Campus Mundi ösztöndíjak) programme is a mobility programme whose primary goal is to ensure that Hungarian higher education is actively involved in international mobility processes. Within this framework, Hungarian higher education students can participate in foreign training courses. They can get a scholarship [short study trip (from at least 2 days to maximum 30 days) / individual and group / vocational training, part-time training]. The experience gained through foreign training contributes to the improvement of higher education graduates' employability, and to the training of internationally informed, self-conscious Hungarian intellectuals. The scholarship is funded by the European Union, the Hungarian Government and the European Social Fund. The support could be used for the costs of the scholarship.

Mobility language programme for students in secondary education

The Hungarian Government launched the Language Learning Scholarship Programme for Hungarian Students (Külföldi Nyelvtanulási Program) in 2020 in grades 9-11. in secondary schools: 140 000 students will have the opportunity to study abroad twice alone or in a team for two weeks in those countries which language could be learnt as the first foreign language according to the National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv) (English, German, French, Chinese). The main aim of the project is to motivate students to study foreign languages and to overcome their barriers in using their knowledge in another country.

In 2020/2021 and in 2022 the Government announced the suspension of the Language Learning Scholarship Programme due to the pandemic situation and since then, there is no updates on this.

Promoting mobility in the context of non-formal learning, and of youth work

There is no policy/programme/project/initiative for promoting mobility in the context of non-formal learning, youth work.

Quality assurance

The Mobility Tool+ ('Beszámolás folyamata') created by the European Commission is a web-based tool that enables Erasmus+ participants to make reports and track projects. The Mobility Tool+ programme's primary goal is to make the participation of the students in Erasmus+ programme completely transparent. One outcome is the final product(s) of the activity determined in the application (it can be a publication/any kind of written material). The other outcome is the financial accounting of students. Therefore, it is a half-quality assurance/half-administrative tool. If the student does not complete the requirements, the National Office of the Erasmus+ programme could demand the already paid scholarship.

In addition, the Tempus Public Foundation, which is responsible for Erasmus+ coordination, reports from the year 2007 onwards on the effectiveness of its programmes. Tempus Public Foundation reports on their previous year's activity. It is a factual summary of their activities. The report examines if their activity reflects the education policy’s goals, provide numbers of students who participated in their scholarships, projects, programmes. There is also a section on the challenges and plans about their activities, so it is a 'self-evaluation' report instead of a strict quality report based on quality criteria, but it provides transparency.

Revision of the 'Mid-term Strategy of Grade Change in Higher Education'

The State Audit Office of Hungary (Állami Számvevőszék) prepared a report in 2021 to present the changes in the higher education system since 2012. The report also lists and evaluates the provisions taken for competitiveness and the development of the quality of higher education based on the goals determined in the Strategy. According to the report, only 10% of the students in higher education took part in a mobility programme (the goal is 20% to 2023). The report states that the pandemic situation strongly affects physical mobility programmes because there are many more options to digitally receive international educational experiences (the report is not available online from 2023).