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EACEA National Policies Platform: Youthwiki
Denmark

Denmark

Glossary

A-kasse: Unemployment insurance funds: Unemployment insurance is a voluntary scheme administered by Denmark's unemployment insurance funds and not by the state. Denmark's unemployment insurance funds are private associations of employees or self-employed persons organised for the sole purpose of ensuring economic support in the event of unemployment. The purpose of the unemployment insurance funds in Denmark is to ensure economic support for the unemployed citizen.

AKU-ledighed: The Labour Force Survey (LFS/AKU) unemployment rate. The Labour Force Survey (LFS/AKU) is a questionnaire and used for international comparisons.

Almen bolig:  Social housing. Social housing is low-cost housing for everyone. The Law on Social Housing establishes a National Building Fund. The primary purpose of the fund is the financing of construction and renovation of public housing. All public housing units pay a mandatory contribution to the fund. Housing organisations can apply for financial support from the fund for the construction of new public housings or renovation of existing homes.

Almen voksenuddannelse (AVU): General adult education programme. AVU is an education for persons above the age of 18. AVU is composed of single subjects and the highest level is the basis for Higher Preparatory Examination Programme (HF).

Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag (AUB): The Employers' Reimbursement Fund. The fund is a self-governing institution with the purpose of increasing the number of apprenticeships.

Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelse (AMU): adult vocational training. Short vocational training programmes mainly for low skilled and skilled workers on the labour market

Bekendtgørelse: Ministerial Order. A ministerial order is an executive/administrative regulation issued by a national authority, usually a ministry. A ministerial order is issued based on a law and contains rules that are binding for both the citizens and the authorities.

Beskæftigelsesrådet (BER): The National Employment Council. The National Employment Council has been set up to advise the Minister of Employment. The National Employment Council consists of one chairman and 26 representatives from among social partners (trade unions and employers associations), the municipalities, Danish Regions and the Danish Council of Organisations of Disabled People. The national employment council convenes for eight meetings per year.

Boligselskab: public housing organisations: Built and rent out public housing. Public housing organisations are non-profit organizations, and they do not earn anything from renting out the homes. The rent of housing is thus determined solely to cover the costs of the operation of the units with the addition of provisions for maintenance

Botilbud: sheltered residence: An offer for children and young people according to the Act on Social Services

Brobygning:  Bridging course: A course with the objective of easing the transition from one situation to another

Dagpenge: Unemployment benefit. A benefit for unemployed people who are member of a unemployment insurance fund.

Danske Skoleelever (DSE): The Association of Danish Pupils. The objective of the association is to promote the interest of the pupils in primary and lower secondary education.

Dansk Folkeoplysnings Samråd (DFS): The Danish Adult Education Association is an umbrella organisation advocating the common interests of our 34 member organisations, all working with non-formal adult learning activities.

Danske Gymnasieelevers Sammenslutning (DGS): The Union of Danish Upper Secondary School Students. The objective of the union is to promote the interests of the pupils in general upper secondary educations.

Danske Regioner: Regional Denmark. Interest organisation of the five regions.

Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd (DUF): Danish Youth Council. DUF is an umbrella organisation representing 75 children and youth organisations.

Det nationale forskningscenter for arbejdsmiljø (NFA): The National Research Centre for the Working Environment. NFA is a government research institute within the area of working environment.

Det rådgivende udvalg for vurdering af udbud af videregående uddannelser (RUVU): Advisory Committee to Assess the Range of Higher Study Programmes Offered. The committee assesses the relevance of new educations and programmes in connection with prequalification.

Efterskole: Continuation school. A private optional school targeted pupils in the 8th-10th grade where the pupils live at the school for a year. Often the continuation schools have a specific profile such as theatre, sports or outdoor activities.

Emma-kriterier: EMMA-criteria are four criteria used in the VET programmes for students in school-based training. Students are entitles to complete a vocational education with school-based training instead of apprenticeship when they meet the EMMA-criteria:

  • Qualified

  • Geographically mobile

  • Professional mobile

  • Proactive in the search for apprenticeship

Erhvervsskolernes elevorganisation (EEO): the Danish Vocational and Technical School Students Union. EEO is an interest organisation for VET-students and technical high school students.

Erhvervsgrunduddannelse (EGU): Basic vocational education and training. An individualised basic vocational education and training programme

Erhvervsuddannelser for voksne (EUV): vocational education and training for adults. People above 25 years have access to VET programmes designed especially for adults on the basis of recognition of prior learning and relevant work experience, which leads to the same vocational qualifications

EUX: EUX combines a VET education and a general upper secondary education. EUX qualifies students for a job as well as giving them direct access to higher education in a wide range of programmes

Fagligt udvalg: Trade committee: a committee is set up for each vocational programme. The social partners are represented in the trade committees. The Trade committees are responsible for

Finansloven: The Finance Act. The Finance act determines the Danish state's budget for the following year. Each year a new Finance Act must be passed in Parliament.

Flexicurity: The employment system in Denmark is built up around the so-called Danish flexicurity model which combines flexibility and security for the citizen. The Danish employment system's combination of flexibility and security is often described as a ‘golden triangle’. The Danish model, known as the “flexicurity model”, combines high mobility between jobs with a comprehensive income safety net for the unemployed and an active labour market policy.

Folkeoplysning: non-formal general adult education: building on the traditions of the educationist N.F.S. Grundtvig, focusing on individual choice and characterised by NGO-organisation and lack of grades and exams. The aims of adult learning are:

  • to strengthen democracy through participation in free and open competence development

  • to ensure personal development and quality of life for the citizens

  • to ensure equality through education, with emphasis on participation by the low-skilled

  • to develop professional competence and flexibility in a changing labour market.

Folkeskole: Public primary and lower secondary education institutions. In Denmark the Folkeskole is free for all.

Forberedende Grunduddannelse (FGU): Preparatory Basic Education and Training. The FGU is preparatory basic education programme for young people under 25 years.

Fordelsuddannelser: A list of advantageous VET programmes which employers have singled out because there is a great chance of apprenticeship and employment.

Frie fagskoler: Private, non-formal, preparatory vocational education and training. The schools offer practical and vocational teaching combined with general education to young people who have completed compulsory education. The objective of the teaching is to prepare the young person for further education.

Gymnasium: general upper secondary education institutions. There are four general upper secondary educations: STX, HHX, HTX and HF.

HF-enkeltfag: Single subject course. Higher preparatory single subject course. The education programme is equivalent to general upper secondary education.

Hovedorganisationer. Trade union confederations. In Denmark, there are four national trade union confederations that unite a large number of trade unions. The trade union confederations are LO, FTF, AC and Lederne.

Højere forberedelseseksamen (HF): The Higher preparatory Examination. A 2-year upper secondary education programme with an emphasis on both theoretical and practical competences.

Højere handelseksamen (HHX). The Higher Commercial Examination Programme (hhx). HHX is a 3-year general upper secondary education programme with a commercial profile

Højere teknisk eksamen (HTX). The Higher Technical Examination Programme (htx). A 3-year general upper secondary education programme with a profile within the technics and natural sciences.

Højskole: Folk High schools are residential schools for everybody who is 17 ½ years. The education programme is non-formal adult education aiming to provide life enlightenment, public enlightenment and democratic education. There is no fixed curriculum, no exams and no grades.

KL: Local Government Denmark. Local Government Denmark is the association and interest organisation of the 98 Danish municipalities. All of the 98 municipalities have voluntarily decided to be a part of KL. The mission of KL is to safeguard common interests of the municipalities, assist individual municipalities with consultancy services, and ensure that the local authorities are provided with up-to-date and relevant information. 

Kommunalbestyrelse: Municipal Council. Overall management of and responsibility for the entire local organisation is vested in the local council. The council may make decisions on any municipal matter. All local councillors are elected for a four-year period in local government elections

Kommunalt selvstyre: Local government. According to the constitution, the 98 municipalities are entitled to manage their tasks independently. Therefore, the municipal welfare services differ from municipality to municipality. Municipalities are under state supervision.

Kommunal Ungeindsats (KUI): Municipal provision for young people under 25 years. Municipalities are obliged to establish a coherent cross-sectoral measure regarding education and employment for all young people under 25 years. The measure coordinates education, employment, and social initiatives.

Kontanthjælp: Cash Benefit. A public benefit for unemployed persons not entitled to unemployment benefit.

Landssammenslutning af Handelsskoleelever (LH):  The National Federation of Business Students in Denmark. An association for business students in Denmark with the purpose of promoting the interests of business students.

Ledig: Unemployed. In Denmark, different terms and definitions are used in statistics about unemployed persons:

  1. Net unemployed: Insured unemployed persons and persons in the cash benefit scheme in the 16-64 age group

  2. Gross unemployed: Net unemployed persons and all unemployed persons enrolled in active labour market measures

  3. AKU unemployed (Labour Force Survey): Unemployed persons according to the definitions used in ILO and Eurostat

Lov om aktiv socialpolitik: Act on Active Social Policy. The purpose of the act is to prevent people who are situated on the edge of the labour market and have difficulties holding on to a job from needing public financial support. At the same time, the act secures a financial safety net for people with no other means of supporting themselves. The purpose of providing financial support is to make the recipient capable of supporting him- or herself. Among other things, the act concerns social security, activation and rehabilitation.

Lov om Social Service: Act on Social services. The objectives of the Act are to offer advice and support so as to prevent social problems, to offer a number of general services designed to serve as preventive measures at the same time and to satisfy needs resulting from impaired physical or mental function or special social problems.

Nytteindsats: Usefulness initiative: a measure for people receiving education benefit or other benefits while not being in education, employment or training. For the most resourceful recipients of education benefits or cash benefits, the so-called “usefulness initiative” has been introduced, according to which recipients undertake socially useful tasks for public employers.

Produktionsskoler: Production schools. Independent institutions aimed at young people under the age of 25 who have not completed a qualifying youth education and who, at the time, are not qualified to start such an education. The pupils are entitled to a maximum of one year at a production school. As of August 2019, there is no admission of new students.

Regionale Arbejdsmarkedsråd (RAR): Regional Labour Market Councils. The general objective of the eight Regional Labour Market Councils is to improve coordination and dialogue between different municipalities and between municipalities and unemployment insurance funds, enterprises and other actors, including VET-centres and growth forums

Regionsråd: Regional Council. The affairs of the five regions are governed by five regional councils. Each council has 41 members. The councils are elected for a four year period in general regional elections

Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser (REU): The Council for Vocational Training. The purpose of the council is to advise the Minister of education regarding vocational educations, production schools, (EGU)/basic vocational education and training etc. The members of the council are the social partners, Local Government Denmark, Regional Denmark, and representatives from teacher organisations, Education institutions and pupil organisations. 

Satspuljeaftale: Rate Adjustment Pool. A pool of public funds earmarked for the most disadvantaged groups of citizens in the Danish society. 

Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU): State Educational Grant. Danish students are entitled to public support for their further education - regardless of social standing. Support for students' living costs is awarded by the State Educational Grant

Studienævn: Study board. The Board of Studies is the education’s representative and governing body for both students and faculty. Among other things, the Board of Studies deals with planning semester courses and teaching, student and faculty initiatives, complaints and concerns, and the arrangement of guest lectures and social activities. The Board consists of both student and faculty representatives with the Chair of the Study Board as the responsible administrator.

Studieordning: programme regulations/curriculum

STU: A three-year youth education programme for young people with mental and physical impairments or special needs.

Styrelsen for arbejdsmarked og rekruttering (STAR): The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment. The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment is responsible for implementing and following up on employment policy in Denmark, including recruitment of necessary foreign labour. STAR supports the Minister for Employment in the work of policy formulation, legislation and in relation to the Danish parliament (Folketinget).

Studentereksamen (STX): The Higher General Examination Programme. A 3-year upper secondary education programme with focus on general education and general study preparation.

Studievalg Danmark: Study guidance Denmark. Seven study guidance centres have the responsibility for guidance regarding the transition from youth education to higher education.

Trepartaftaler: A tripartite agreement is an agreement negotiated between the three central parts of the Danish labour market: employer organisations, labour organisations (representing salaried employees) and the Danish Ministry of Finance (representing the Government). The Government’s cooperation with labour and employer organisations is an integrated part of the whole employment policy.

Uddannelsespålæg: Education instruction. Young people below 30 years without education in the cash benefit system receive an instruction to start an education when they have their first interview in the job centre.

Uddannelseshjælp: Education Benefit. Public benefit targeted people below 30 years without an education. The benefit is equivalent to the state educational grant (SU).

Udlodningsmidlerne: The Profits from the national lottery and football pools. Danish Gaming’s (Danske Spil) profits (funds from the state football polls and the National Lottery) are put to many uses every year; this includes sports and culture. The funds are allocated according to a fixed distribution key in the legislation regulating football polls and the National Lottery.

Ungdomsskoler: Youth Schools are located in every municipality and carry out many different tasks to support young people living in the municipality. The municipal Youth School plays an important role in securing and helping young people towards education and a good adult life with focus on improving social skills, personal skills and academic achievement. By doing so, Youth Schools prepare young people for further and higher education. The goal is to help, guide and educate young people especially, those who may be considered socially marginalized.

VEU (Voksen- og efteruddannelse): Adult education and continuing training.

Voksenuddannelsescenter (VUC): Adult education centre.

Videregående voksenuddannelse (VVU): Further adult education. Further education for adults corresponding to an Academy Profession-degree (2 years of higher education at undergraduate level).