8.5 Developing cultural and creative competences
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In terms of formal education, cultural and creative competences in Serbia can be acquired through general, vocational secondary education and higher education.
In general education, as well as in vocational upper secondary education, Musicand Art education are taught as two mandatory, separate subjects. The goal of learning music education is to develop pupils' awareness of the importance and role of music art through the development of civilization and society, to encourage pupils’ creative and critical thinking, to develop aesthetic criteria to form a responsible attitude towards preserving music heritage and culture as well as further professional and personal development. The goal of learning art education is to develop communication skills and to develop creativity and a responsible attitude towards preserving the culture and artistic heritage.
Moreover, in general upper secondary schools, pupils can opt for the optional subject Art and design. The programme is interdisciplinary, outcome-based and thematically created. Pupils can choose it throughout their secondary school education. It is realized within groups composed of pupils from different classes and the interdisciplinary nature of the programme implies the joint work of teachers of different subjects.
The aim is that the pupil through art research and creative work develops sensitivity to aesthetics, creativity, curiosity and motivation to create and expression in different media, as well to form the habit of continuous involvement in artistic and cultural life of the community.
Topics are processed through research and projects, which means that there is no pre-defined scenario of activities. The programme is realized through activities that pupils can implement in school as well as outside. Topics covered:
- works of art as inspiration;
- nature as inspiration;
- fashion trends;
- styles in art.
- Unified art
- art of advertising;
- art projects in Serbia;
In 4 general upper secondary schools as of school year 2020/21, specialized departments/classes for creative industries have been introduced. Specialized departments for creative industries - performing and audio-visual arts are intended for gifted pupils in these areas. By attending this programme, pupils develop creative thinking with the application of new technologies and a responsible attitude towards the preservation of cultural heritage. This programme will provide students with creative space and support in acquiring basic knowledge and skills in the fields of theatre disciplines, media, film art, various audio-visual forms, video games, the Internet, as well as the structure of artistic professions in these areas in accordance with a continuous process of technology and digitalization development. Mandatory art-related subjects are:
- Fine art – with 144 recommended annual school hours;
- Music art - with 144 recommended annual school hours;
- Performing art - with 531 recommended annual school hours;
- Audio-visual art - with 531 recommended annual school hours
For admission to these classes, pupils need to pass the entrance exam and it includes a general culture test based on pupils' knowledge of the Serbian language, music, fine art and history. The number of students is 20 but most of the teaching of art subjects takes place in smaller groups of a maximum of 10 pupils.
In upper secondary education, art schools, such as music and ballet schools can be mixed schools with both art and general education subjects. Alternatively, pupils may enrol in an art school and another general or vocational secondary school at the same time. Educational profiles in four-year musical education are:
- Music performer of classical music
- A jazz music performer
- Music performer of Serbian traditional singing and playing
- Music performer of church music, Orthodox direction
- Music performer of church music, Catholic and Protestant direction
- Early music performer
- Music Associate
- Sound designer
In ballet school pupils can choose among classical ballet, contemporary dance and folk dance. Besides music and ballet schools, there are experimental programmes for several vocational educational profiles: stylist associate, dramatic art associate, restoration and conservation technician.
Cultural and art education is offered by a number of higher education institutions in Serbia. These can be universities and colleges that are either public or private, offering study programmes at bachelor, master and doctoral levels. Heritage, music, fine and applied arts, cultural management and film are defined as the most represented cultural fields.
In terms of non-formal learning cultural and creative competences in Serbia can be acquired through different initiatives and programmes organized by civil society organisations or formal education providers. According to the UNESCO Culture for Development Indicators (CDIS)- Country Technical Report, trainings and courses are mostly held in the field of management in culture, music, dramatic and visual arts and photography by various organizations in the public and civil sector, and universities through summer schools and career development centres or centres for professional education.
Special attention is paid to the preparations for the introduction of drama education in schools and the preparation of teachers for drama education, which is usually done by non-governmental organizations: Centre for Drama in Education and Art - CEDEUM, Bazaart, Dah Theater and others.
Trainings and courses in the field of heritage, conservation and restoration for employees in culture and for the public are organized by the Central Institute for Conservation.
Management and marketing seminars in culture are led by the Independent Culture Scene of Serbia, the UNESCO Chair in Cultural Management and Cultural Policy, and sporadically by other actors (within the design of the Nova Iskra incubator, Creative Mentorship, some festivals and events, summer schools, etc.). In the last few years, trainings in the field of international cultural cooperation, cultural diplomacy and cultural tourism, entrepreneurship, fundraising and preparation for participation in international projects have been held sporadically.
As mentioned below, in Providing quality access to creative environments, the Ministry of Culture and Information announces an annual call for financing or co-financing projects in the field of contemporary art in the Republic of Serbia.
Among 12 area priorities, 11th priority refers to cultural activities of children and activities for children and youth. Under this priority projects that contribute to the development of cultural needs and strengthen the capacity of children and youth and youth organizations can be funded. These can be projects of education in the field of culture, encouraging the application of new technologies in culture, networking, encouraging young talents, projects that encourage research and creative thinking, projects that motivate artists to work with young people, cultural activities in the framework of spending free time etc.
Minimum amount to be financed or co-financed per project: 250,000.00 dinars in 2020.
Besides initial education offered by higher education institutions in Serbia, programmes of continuous professional development are offered to the teachers through the Catalogue of accredited programmes by the Institute for Improvement of Education for both compulsory and optional art subjects.
Didactic-methodical guidance for teaching and learning is provided to teachers responsible for art education within the Bylaw on the gymnasium curriculum and the Bylaw on the curriculum for common subjects in vocational and art schools. Moreover, each curriculum contains a didactic-methodical instruction which, together with general instruction, gives a teacher a complete picture of the nature of a specific optional programme and its realization.
European Film Factory is a new online free educational film platform for pupils and teachers created by the French Institute in collaboration with Arte Education (an educational branch of the French-German channel Arte) and European Schoolnet - a network of 34 ministries of education in Europe where Serbia is included as an observer country. The platform is intended for pupils aged 11 to 18 and their teachers. It is possible to watch 10 European films completely free of charge and create educational materials with the help of various tools, together with pupils.
This platform provides the possibility of connecting with other users, as well as exchanging created materials and ideas for work and processing. The aim of this platform is to introduce children to the seventh art, to teach them to read social, psychological and cultural phenomena through film, as well as to sensitize them to European similarities and differences.
The Ministry of Culture and Information announces an annual call for financing or co-financing projects in the field of contemporary art in the Republic of Serbia. The call should provide financial support to cultural programmes and projects that contribute to the realization of the general interest in the field of culture.
The call is announced for programmes and projects in the following areas of culture:
- literature (creation, translation);
- music (creation, production, interpretation);
- fine, applied, visual arts, design and architecture;
- theatre art (creation, production and interpretation);
- artistic dance - classic ballet, folk dance, contemporary dance (creation, production and interpretation);
- film art and other audio-visual creations;
- digital creation and multimedia.
In addition, the call opens for programmes and projects in the field cultural activities of children and for children and young people.
Among 12 area priorities, 11th priority refers to cultural activities of children and activities for children and youth. Under this priority participatory projects ideas are especially supported. These are projects:
- in which children and young people have an active role, participate in their creation and implementation;
- projects that enable the availability of cultural content of programmes of cultural institutions dedicated to children and youth, innovative projects and projects that contribute to creating conditions for the development of children's creativity and education in all areas of art and cultural development);
- projects dealing with children and youth at risk (violence prevention, street children, children without parental care, victims of human trafficking, asylum seekers).
Minimum amount to be financed or co-financed per project: 250,000.00 dinars in 2020. In 2019, 81 such projects were funded with the total amount of RSD 21,350,000.00.
In addition, the Ministry of Youth and Sports finances and co-finances youth programmes and projects of public interest through public call. In addition to supporting the implementation of youth volunteer projects and volunteer camps within the Programme Youth Rules (Mladi su zakon) (see more on 2.4 Youth volunteering at national level) these public calls support programmes and projects aimed at implementing the objectives of the National Youth Strategy.
In this regard, it is possible to propose:
- innovative programmes or projects;
- programmes or projects that represent the continuation of initiated activities from previous programmes or projects;
- programmes or projects modelled on those previously implemented that have given good results.
These proposals must contribute to the achievement strategic goals referring to the culture and creativity of young people. Funds for programmes and projects are provided in the budget of the Republic of Serbia, based on the Law on the Budget of the Republic of Serbia.