8.5 Developing cultural and creative competences
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Cultural classes are part of the formal educational system of the Republic of Macedonia. The educational programs for primary schools (age from 6 to 14) include obligatory art classes: plastic arts and music each year. These classes are also part of the first year of educational programmes in high schools (age from 15 to 18). The schools are often proposing extracurricular activities in art and culture: orchestra, choir, dance and fine arts, which are optional activities outside regular classes.
Macedonia also offers formal high-schools in the field of culture (age from 15 to 18). Music, dance and applied art high-schools are offering four-year education in the related fields. The dance and applied art high-school only exist in Skopje and there are several music high-schools in some bigger towns in Macedonia (for example Tetovo, Bitola, Stip).
According to the Curricula of Music Education for the First Year VET School (Наставна програма Музичка уметност, I година средно стручно образование), the program objectives are:
- the student acquires knowledge about the history of music;
- To understand elements of the stylistic characteristics of music in every period of its historical development;
- To get acquainted with the life and work of the representatives of those periods;
- to gain the ability to actively listen to and perform musical works;
- to deepen knowledge of musical theory;
- to master and apply the knowledge of musical folklore;
- develop interest in recognizing musical works;
- to develop interest in visiting concerts, opera and ballet performances;
- develop interest in active participation in projects.
According to the Curricula of Fine Arts for first year VET school (Предметна програма Ликовна уметност за I година), some of the programme objectives are:
-Student to gain visual abilities to perceive fine art’s values;
- To learn the language of fine art and to gain other theoretical knowledge;
- To develop skills for individual artistic expression;
- To experience the artwork and to be able to express individual impressions;
- To possess knowledge of the cultural heritage of Macedonia, the characteristics of folk culture and cultures of other countries.
The highest level of art education can be represented in the art academies. There are several art academies in Macedonia on the level of higher education: Music, Drama, Dance, Theatre and Fine Art. After attending 4-year program, the successful students are awarded with faculty degree. In the Faculty of Fine Arts in Skopje there are 4 study programmes in first cycle of studies, as follows: study programs in Graphics, Sculpture, Painting and Art Pedagogy. For second cycle of studies students can choose between Painting, Sculpting and Graphic Art.
Faculty of Dramatic Arts offers few study programmes on Bachelor and Master studies and one program for PhD. The undergraduate studies include the following study programmes: Drama Actors, Dramaturgy, Production, Theater Directing, Film and TV editing, Film and TV directing and Cinematography. In the Masters program, students can choose between Production,
Theatre Studies and Film Studies.
In the Faculty of Music- Skopje, there are few study programmes for first cycle of studies, as: Music Theory and Pedagogy Composition and Distribution; Solo Singing; Key Instruments; Ballet Pedagogy; Popular Genres; Brass Instruments; String Instruments. For master studies students can choose between Ballet Pedagogy, Music Sciences and Music Interpretation and Composition.
In order to make music education more accessible to students with financial obstacles, in April 2018, on the proposal of the Ministry of Education and Science, the Government at the 64th session adopted the Draft Law on Youth Support for the Purchase of Musical Instruments (Предлог Закон за поддршка на млади при купување музички инструменти). The Law stipulates that the Ministry will make part of the paid funds for purchased musical instrument in the amount of 75% of the paid funds, but not more than 100,000 denars (around 1627 euros) per instrument, for 25 musical instruments purchased by regular students enrolled in state secondary schools in which plans and programs for musical art are realized and in the amount of 75% of the paid funds, but not more than 100,000 denars per instrument, for 25 musical instruments purchased by regular students enrolled at state higher education institutions where the exercise study programs in the field of music. In order to qualify for a refund, the student must, inter alia, have an excellent grade in the course of the instrument for which he applies for a refund and the total monthly income of the parents-the guardians of the student to be less than four average paid net salaries per employee for the last three months, determined by the State Statistical Office.
There is no information for the existence of any public nationwide specialised training for development of cultural and creative skills for relevant professionals such as teachers, educators and youth workers.
However, a lot of individual initiatives for cultural education are created by civil society organizations, cultural institutions or youth associations. There are programs for capacity development of professionals in the cultural sector offered by cultural foundations and international donors. Most European countries have bilateral cooperation with Macedonia in the field of culture and support programs for cultural workers and artists. Many of the youth associations are organizing activities related to cultural education. Some of them are supported by EU programs such as Erasmus plus.
The Ministry of Culture is offering financial support for talented artists in the framework of their National program for support of culture. Each year, through public call, the Ministry of Culture gives financial support to the young cultural artists to attend education in the field of music, dance, fine arts, architecture and cultural heritage.
Authors have the possibility to apply for funding for realisation of cultural projects of national interest (for example in music, art, theatre, literature etc.). Each year the Ministry of Culture launches a public call for cultural projects of national interest.
Youth Cultural Centar (Младински културен центар) is a space that aims to prome culture, cultural and scientific values of young people. With a rich program, covering all cultural expressions (music, film, theater, literature), scientific activity, workshops and lectures, debates and debate clubs, YCC has from its establishment in 1972 occupied a strategically important position in the life of young people in the city of Skopje and throughout the country .
In 2015, the first multi-functional art space “Pubic room” opened in Skopje. Public room is open for companies, organisations, artists and individuals as a place for exhibitions, concerts, art workshops. It represents a place for commercial bazaars, free co-working space for freelancers, concept store, bar etc. it is considered as a space for cultural expression and is often visited by local artists.
The cultural centar “JADRO” is an inclusive space that nurtures an inclusive, democratic and progressive culture through the creation of programs, affirmation, education and development of artistic and socio-cultural practices in cooperation with individuals, formal and informal groups. The Centar is an open space that allows free use of the space for programs of cultural organizations, individuals, informal groups and organizations from the wider civil sector. In addition to being a physical space for the independent cultural scene, “KSP Centar-Jadro” is above all a space that produces new social narratives.