3.2 Administration and governance
The system at national level
The main players in the system are:
The Ministry of Labour and Social Policies (MLPS) plans, implements and coordinates labour policy and interventions for employment development, labour protection and adequacy of the social security system, social policies, with particular reference to the prevention and reduction of the conditions of need and social distress of people and families.
The Ministry of Enterprises and Made in Italy (former MISE) deals with the organisation and management of the functions pertaining to the State in the field of industry, crafts, energy and trade. The main sectors of interest refer to the secondary sector and can be grouped into three thematic areas: development of the production system, foreign trade and internationalisation of the economic system, communication and information technologies. It defines industrial policies and regulates support measures for small and medium enterprises.
The National Agency for Active Labour Policies (ANPAL) has a legal personality under public law and is supervised by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies.
The role of ANPAL is to coordinate employment policies for job seekers and the reemployment of the unemployed. Therefore, it uses tools and methodologies to support public and private operators in the labour market. Furthermore, ANPAL carries out the analysis, monitoring and evaluation of active policies and employment services, in order to adapt targets and result indicators set by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies.
The Agency coordinates the National Network of Employment Services, promotes the rights to work, training and professional development.
The ANPAL is responsible for the management of the information system of the labour market, where information on job seekers converge. The Agency manages the national register of accredited subjects for active policies, l’Albo nazionale degli enti di formazione accreditati dalle Regioni e Province autonome, the national repertoire of the recruitment incentives and European activities and programs for training and employment and European activities and programs for training and employment.
The National Labour Inspectorate (INL), established by Legislative Decree no. 149/2015, is responsible for labour inspectorate activities. The activities of ANPAL and INL are placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, who periodically monitor the objectives and the correct management of the financial resources.
The National Institute for the Analysis of Public Policies (INAPP) is a public research institution that carries out the analysis, monitoring and evaluation of labour and employment services policies, education and training policies, social policies and, more in general, the policies which impact on the labour market.
INAPP collaborates with European institutions and is part of the national statistical system (SISTAN). It has the role of methodological and scientific coordination for the actions funded by the USF and is the National Agency of the Erasmus+ Community program for the field of vocational education and training. It represents the National Agency within the European ERIC-ESS consortium, which leads the European Social Survey.
The system at local level
According to art. 117 of the Italian Constitution, the Italian regions have legislative competency concurrent with the State concerning “complementary and supplementary pensions” and “professions” and “protection and safety of work”, while they have full-residual competence concerning “professional training ”.
- The regional system of Vocational Education and Training (IeFP) is one of the channels for fulfilling the obligation of education and the right-duty to education and training established by law.
- The secondary school reform (Law 107/2015) [see the Good School Law in the Wiki Education and Training section] integrated the regional leFP system within the second cycle of education, recognizing the validity of qualifications at a national level due to their compatibility with the repertoires of professional figures and standards of competences set at a national level.
Cross-sectoral cooperation: The organization of active labour policies
As foreseen by the most recent reform processes, the Ministry of Labour is responsible for establishing and verifying compliance with the essential performance levels (Lep) of labour active policies to be guaranteed throughout the national territory.
Furthermore, as defined by Legislative Decree 150/2015, art. 2 paragraph 1, the Ministry indicates the three-year guidelines and annual objectives of the action in the field of active labour policies, with particular regard to the “reduction of the average duration of unemployment, service times, the intermediation quota between demand and supply of work”, identifying the result indicators to assess the performance of the operators of the national network of employment services.
In this context, ANPAL has the role of “management coordination” of the policies entrusted to other subjects of the Network. The ANPAL is entrusted with the creation (in cooperation with the Ministry, Regions, INPS and INAPP) of the “unified information system of labour policies” (SIUL), composed of a national coordination node and regional nodes, as well as the “single portal for registration on the national network of services for labour policies”, through which citizens can access the network.
The Regions carry out functions and tasks related to placement (such as the placement of certain categories of workers, or initiatives for increasing employment and facilitating the matching of labour demand and supply) as well as in the field of active labour market policies, with particular reference to the planning and coordination of the services provided.
Legislative Decree 150/2015 provides for the stipulation between the Ministry and individual Regions of an agreement aimed at regulating mutual obligations in relation to the management of employment services and active labour policies in the territory. The form and extension of the network is variable, differentiated through negotiation.
The Regions are responsible for labour related services. In particular, it is established that Regions provide in-house service, i.e. through its own Employment Centres or through private operators for a wide range of these activities, creating a service model based on a public-private partnership, through the regional accreditation process.
The institution of GOL (Garanzia dell’Occupabilità dei lavoratori - Workers Occupability Guarantee) of the NRRP was born precisely from the cooperation between Government and Regions, with a 4.4 billion funding.