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Main actors involved in youth employment and entrepreneurship
The main top-level governmental authority responsible for youth employment and entrepreneurship are:
- the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection;
- the National Employment Agency (NEA);
- The Ministry for the Business, Commerce and Entrepreneurship Environment .
Trade unions, employers’ organisations and NGOs participate in policy making in the field of youth employment and entrepreneurship as consultative structures for the government using three main methods:
- the National Council For Youth (NCFY) created in 2020 as an advisory body for the Ministry of Youth and Sports, composed by 50 representatives of youth civil society organisations (presented in section 5.3 of Youth Wiki).
- ad-hoc consultative meetings
- the Economic and Social Council, a consultative body of the Parliament and the Government, organised as an autonomous tripartite public institution of national interest, having the function of an advisory board for all bills in the social or economical field.
There are three type of organisations participating in both the ad-hoc consultative meetings and the Economic and Social Council:
- nationally representative trade unions, according to the Law no. 62/2011 on social dialogue;
- nationally representative employers associations, according to the Law no. 62/2011 on social dialogue;
- NGOs appointed by the Minister of Labour, according to representation criteria. However, the criteria are not public. An umbrella youth organisation: the Romanian Youth Council is part of the Economic and Social Council.
General distribution of responsabilities
Concering the general distribution of resposabilities, the main governance approach to youth employment and entrepreneurship is top-down, as both youth and employment are subject to the national policies.
- the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection is responsible for policy design, monitoring and evaluation on youth employment;
- the National Employment Agency (NEA) is responsible for the implementation of most of the employmentpolicies. The National Employment Agency functions under the Ministry of Labour and Social Justice and has county offices and local offices responsible for the direct provision of services to unemployed persons, including youth;
- The Ministry for the Business, Commerce and Entrepreneurship Environment is responsible for policy design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation on youth entrepreneurship. Local offices for SMEs are implementing the youth entrepreneurship programmes of the MBCEE in direct relationship with the young entrepreneurs.
There are no large-scale initiatives of local authorities in the field of youth employment and entrepreneurship.
There are three mechanisms of cross-sectorial cooperation between ministries, departments, agencies involved in defining top-level policies and measures on youth employment and entrepreneurship:
- Ad-hoc meetings
- Ad-hoc inter-ministerial committees organised on different topics according to the bill in preparation. For example in 2016 the Ministry of Labour created an inter-ministerial committee for jobs creation, with responsibilities on jobs for young people
- The Monitoring Committee of the Operational Programme Human Capacity (OPHU), the programme including employment, education, training, social support and social entrepreneurship support from the European Social Fund and the Youth Employment Initiative. The Monitoring Committee of OPHU is an important cooperation mechanism, as this programme funds many strategic initiatives and projects in the field of youth employment.