3.4 Career guidance and counselling
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Provision of information, guidance and accompaniment in the context of professional integration is a national and territorial (local authority) mission, defined by the State, coordinated by regions and implemented in local areas by a range of public operators and private partners (associations).
Since the Law no.2009-1437 of 24 November 2009 “bearing on professional information, guidance and qualification”everyone has the right to be informed and advised on vocational guidance.
The article 1 of this law confirms the existence of “a right to information, guidance and professional qualification” aiming to “enable each person to acquire and update knowledge and skills favouring their professional development”. It confers French Regions with increased competences in the field of guidance and information, due in particular to their competences with regard to vocational and continuing training.
The Regional Public Guidance Service (SPRO - service public régional d’orientation)
The Law no. 2014-288 of 5 March 2014 “bearing on vocational training, employment and social democracy " introduces the Regional Public Guidance Service (SPRO - service public régional d’orientation), which reaffirms the right of all people to be “informed, advised and accompanied throughout their lives with regard to professional orientation”. The SPRO, which was introduced across the whole country on 1st January 2015, aims to simplify and clarify the various actors and offers of accompaniment and guidance towards employment, as France has a whole range of information structures and services that require greater visibility and coherence.
The law n ° 2018-771 of September 5, 2018 "for the freedom to choose one's professional future" modifies the SPRO.It entrusts the regions with the organization of information actions on jobs and trainings at regional, national and European levels for students and their families, apprentices and students.
For example, the regional public advice service (service public régional de l’orientation, SPRO) of the Centre-Val de Loire region that is aimed at young people “in training, as well as employees, jobseekers and those changing career” brings together a variety of actors in professional integration:
- Pôle emploi (job centre),
- Cap emploi (national network of employment organisations that specialise in helping those with disabilities)
- Local missions
- Association pour l’emploi des cadres (Association for hiring executives, APEC),
- Centres d’information et d’orientation (Information and Advice Centres, CIO),
- Information jeunesse network (Youth information network, CRIJ, BIJ, PIJ),
- Services d’information et d’orientation des universités (University Information and Advice Services, SUIO),
- Centres d’aide à la décision des Chambres de Métiers et de l'Artisanat (Decision-Making Advisory Centres for Chambers of Trade and Craft Industries, CAD-CMA),
- Points Chambres de commerce et d’industrie (Centres for Chambers of Commerce and Industry, CCI),
- Points Information Conseil en Validation des acquis (Information Advice Centres for Accreditation of Volunteer Experience, PIC VAE),
- Centre Ressources Information Accompagnement pour le développement des compétences de base (Information Resource Centres for Support in Developing Basic Skills, CRIA).
Counseling in professional evolution
In addition, all the people in employment, irrespective of their status, and age, from entry into working life to retirement, can benefit voluntarily from the scheme of “Counseling in professional evolution” (CEP) implemented in 2014.
This is a free and personalized support measure that allows to build and formalize with the employee or the job seeker his project of evolution or professional transition. Four national operators deliver the CEP: Pôle Emploi, the network of local missions (See Glossary), Cap Emploi and APEC.
Career guidance for young people
The work of some professional support organisations is aimed specifically at young people. They can be part of organisational networks of regional public advice services;
The information and advice centres (CIO) are aimed at qualified young people as a priority. The CIOs report to the Ministry of National Education. They are established across the entire territory. The role of CIOs consists of promoting:
- “The welcome of all members of the public and, as a priority, young people of school age and their families”
- “Information on studying, vocational training, qualifications and occupations”.
- “Bespoke advice”.
- “The observation and analysis of local modifications in education systems and developments on the job market and the production of summary documents for educational teams or pupils”.
- “Organising discussions and reflections between partners in the education system, parents, young people, local decision-makers and economic players”.
University Information and Advice Services (SCUIO)
The SCUIOs are organisations established in universities that offer students essential documentation and a range of information services on university teachings, advice on course choice and help with entering work.
The Office of Professional Integration Assistance (BAIP)
The Office of Professional Integration Assistance collects and distributes a varied offer of internships and jobs, in connection with the training offered by the university. It advises students on their problems related to employment and professional integration. The BAIP is often integrated into the SCUIO.
The info-jeunes network
The info-jeunes network brings together structures that have been certified by the State. It is composed of the youth information and documentation center (CIDJ), the regional youth information centers (CRIJ) and sub-regional structures.
Each structure has the role of informing young people at the local, regional and national level on all the domains that can concern them.
The Information Jeunesse network is the first youth information network in France. This network is composed of a thousand of labeled structures present on the whole national territory, it welcomes more than 2 million young people every year in order to inform them anonymously and free of charge on all subjects that concern them. It is also a national tool for information education.
The structures are labeled by the Ministry in charge of youth, the authority that guarantees the quality of the service provided by the "youth information" network.
The network is made up of :
- A national network head Info Jeunes France (IJF) whose role is the political representation of the network and its national animation
- A national resource center, which is also the CRIJ of Ile de France, the CIDJ (Centre d'Information et de Documentation Jeunesse) Regional Youth Information Centers (CRIJ) which themselves lead, in their respective regions, a network of SIJ (Structures Information Jeunesse) which welcome, inform and accompany users at the local level.
- About 25 Bus Info Jeunes in rural areas.
The Youth Compass
The Youth Compass (Boussole des jeunes) is a digital platform that allows young people to access information about themselves, particularly concerning access to rights and training, and to link them with the relevant local actors. In 2022, 36 territories are covered by the Compass and 29 are in the process of being deployed.
1 young person 1 mentor
As part of the "1 young person, 1 solution" plan implemented in the summer of 2020, the President of the Republic launched the "1 young person, 1 mentor" plan in March 2021, with the aim of ensuring that 100,000 young people by the end of 2021, and then 200,000 young people by the end of 2022, can benefit from a mentoring programme, compared with 30,000 young beneficiaries per year up to then. The "1 young person, 1 mentor" plan is co-piloted by the Ministries of Youth and Employment, with the support of the High Commission for Employment and Business Commitment (HC3E), the Directorate for Youth, Popular Education and Associative Life and the General Delegation for Employment and Vocational Training.
The activity guarantee
Created in 2018 in the context of the 2018-2022 national strategy to prevent and combat poverty, the Activity Guarantee, paid for by Pôle Emploi, guarantees any person experiencing difficulties with social and professional inclusion appropriate support towards activity. It targets, among others, recipients of the Active Solidarity Income (RSA), over a period of one month. During the first week of support, the guarantee requires the signing of personalised employment access projects (PPAE) or reciprocal commitment contracts (CER). In 2022, the guarantee is financed by the State to the tune of 100 million euros.
Depending on the type of organisation (associations) and measures, the employment information and support bodies for young people and pupils will use funding from the national government (Ministry of Employment, Education and Higher Education) and regional authorities, particularly the region, as well as European funds. This funding is most frequently based on signed agreements between the State, the organisation and territorial authorities, such as local missions.
The funding of local missions, members of the public employment service and territorial structures serving the integration of young people, is provided by the State (Ministry for Work, Full Employment and Integration) within the framework of the signing of a multi-year agreement on objectives, to which are added credits for the support of young people within the framework of the CEJ (Contrat d'Engagement Jeune) and the PACEA (parcours contractualisé d'accompagnent vers l'emploi). The Youth Commitment Contract is also funded by the Youth Employment Initiative, which is a financial allocation backed by the European Social Fund plus. Other ministries may contribute to the funding of local missions as part of their main activity or in connection with specific actions. Local authorities (communes, communities of communes, departments and regions) also contribute to the financing of local missions. Finally, Pôle Emploi is an important funder under the framework agreement for reinforced support.
There are several methods for evaluating the measures and organisations for professional integration: internal administrative evaluations, studies created by study consultancies or academic laboratories, as well as satisfaction surveys created by (survey) consultancies. Evaluations are either regular or created on a more ad-hoc basis depending on the organisation. In most cases, these evaluations result in reports and studies that, in particular, tend to suggest improvements.
SPRO (regional public employment advice service)
The evaluation of regional public employment advice services (see SPRO 3.4) is given in the specifications established between the national government and the region (territorial authority). The evaluation should focus on the organisation plan, its management and its results. It must make it possible to identify levers for improving the service provided to actors and to SPRO beneficiaries, as well as realigning the SPRO organisation, if necessary.
Pôle emploi (job centre)
The Pôles emplois (cf. 3.2) also contribute to monitoring and better understanding professional integration policies by producing their own figures. It has an evaluation committee, appointed from the board of directors at the Pôle emploi in compliance with Law No. 2008-126 of 13 February 2008 on the organisational reform of the public employment service. Its task is to evaluate “the interventions, offer of services, supports and measures for companies, jobseekers and occupied persons” offered by the Pôle emploi and, more specifically, by assessing “their relevance, their effectiveness and their efficiency”.
These evaluations focus on the activities, service offers, measures, benefits and organisations at the Pôle emploi, as well as on employers, workers and intermediaries in the labour market. The evaluations are the subject of publications that appear in collections such as “Eclairages et synthèse” (Perspectives and summaries) and “Études et recherches” (Studies and research).
These studies are carried out based on questionnaires that are aimed at jobseekers at several points in time:
- Following their registration interview;
- Following their first interview with their specialist advisor;
- Then regularly as part of the follow-up.