3.4 Career guidance and counselling
Career counselling in FBiH has been carried out by the FBiH Ministry of Education and Science which has developed “Strategic Directions of Career Orientation Development in FBiH 2015 – 2020”
Policies adopted in the previous period in BiH are an important basis and provide a framework for the development of career guidance activities in BiH. The most important policies include:
- Policy for the Development of Vocational Education and Training in BiH 2007 – 2013;
- Policy Directions of Education Development in BiH with the Implementation Plan 2008 – 2015;
- Policy for Learning About Entrepreneurship in Education Systems in BiH 2012-2015 with the Implementation Action Plan;
- Employment Strategy in BiH 2010 - 2014.
Legislative framework in BiH for the development of career guidance activities consists of the following documents:
- Convention on Human Resources Development, International Labour Organization 1975 (No. 142); Bosnia and Herzegovina (ratification: 1993);
- Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in BiH, adopted in 2003;
- Framework Law on Secondary Vocational Education and Training in BiH, adopted in 2008;
- Framework Law on Higher Education in BiH, adopted in 2007;
- Principles and standards in the field of adult education in BiH, adopted in 2014.
Relevant documents prepared in FBiH in the previous period that recognized the need for strategically designed career development are as follows:
- Strategy for strengthening the mediation function in public employment services in FBiH (2014);
- Operational plan of activities for the implementation of measures and recommendations contained in the Analysis with the situation in the field of secondary education with a proposal for harmonization of education measures with the needs of the economy (2011);
- Analysis of the situation on the possibilities of gaining work experience of young people in FBiH with recommendations (2013);
- Information for the FBiH Government on “Analysis of enrolment policy in high school education in FBiH from the aspect of labour market needs" (2014);
- Strategic directions of higher education development in FBiH 2012 - 2022.
Vision of career guidance development in FBiH
An efficient system of career guidance has been established in FBiH with quality services that are available to all citizens throughout life for successful management of learning, education, vocational training and development careers, with the aim of achieving higher employment rates and labour productivity of working-age population, economic development and better social inclusion and cohesion.
The mission of career development in FBiH is to improve the activity of career orientation in FBiH through better integration of the education and labour sectors with the involvement of other relevant social partners and system development providing career guidance services that include: raising awareness of the importance of career orientation, information on education and employment opportunities, monitoring the development of the individual and advisory work, assessment of competencies, development of decision-making skills related to learning, education and career and career management for all citizens throughout life.
The general goal of career orientation development in FBiH is to determine guidelines for action on the improvement and development of career guidance activities in an intersectoral and efficient system, and the result of this process should be providing adequate support to each individual to be successful in making decisions concerning career choices and in managing one's own career development.
Specific goals of career guidance development in FBiH:
- Raise awareness of relevant stakeholders and the public about the importance of lifelong learning and lifelong career orientation.
- Improve the legal and institutional framework for the development and provision of career services orientation.
- Improve cross-sectoral cooperation of all those involved in career guidance (ministries of education, pedagogical institutes, ministries of labour, public employment services, schools, employers, NGOs, etc.)
- Ensure continued monitoring and provision of counselling services at all levels of education, including adult education, and one of the modalities of the implementation of the above is to establish career development centres at universities and other competent institutions.
- Ensure systematically regulated professional development of teachers and experts in the field of career guidance.
- Provide monitoring and counselling for vulnerable and at-risk groups.
- Develop career guidance services based on information and communication technologies.
- Improve the system of monitoring supply and demand in the fields of education and labour market.
- Improve active employment policy measures that raise competitiveness at labour market.
The RS Government has nor adopted career counselling policy, but it has a career counselling measure included in the Employment Policy 2021-2027 (3.2.3): Improving career guidance and counselling – with the aim to provide long-term unemployed people with access to counselling, information and vocational training services in order to find a job, mainly through information, counselling and training centres.
In addition to the General Development Policy, the BD Government has not adopted for employment or counselling policies.
Besides government projects and programs, the project “Prospects for young, unemployed adults in Bosnia and Herzegovina” or “Youth Employment Project (YEP)” was implemented between 1 April 2016 and 30 March 2020 (Phase 4). The project was supported by SDC – Cooperation with Eastern Europe and included partners such as public employment services and relevant ministries and other public institutions. The goal of the Youth Employment Project (YEP) was to support public employment services in BiH in order to improve their offer and to introduce youth-friendly services such as individual and group career counselling for unemployed young adults aged 18 - 30. Together with local partners, YEP also promoted new job opportunities linked to social entrepreneurship models.
The project was implemented in FBiH, RS, BD and Tuzla, Zenica-Doboj, Sarajevo, Central Bosnia, Herzegovina-Neretva, West Herzegovina, Posavina, Bosnian-Podrinje and Una-Sana cantons and Canton 10, as well as in 48 municipalities: Zivinice, Zvornik, Zenica, Vogosca, Tuzla, Travnik, Teslic, Srbac, Rudo, Prozor-Rama, Posusje, Pale, Orasje, Novo Sarajevo, Novi Travnik, Novi Grad Sarajevo, Novi Grad, Nevesinje, Neum, Mostar, Modrica, Lukavac, Livno, Konjic, Kladanj, Kalesija, Kakanj, Jajce, Jablanica, Ilijas, Ilidza, Hadzici, Grude, Gradiska, Gradacac, Gorazde, Fojnica, Doboj, Derventa, Citluk, Capljina, Centar Sarajevo, Cazin, Busovaca, Bugojno, Banja Luka and Banovici.