3.4 Career guidance and counselling
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'In Hungary guidance activities and development are overseen by both the Ministry for Innovation and Technology (Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium) and the Ministry of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma). In the current ministerial structure the Ministry for Innovation and Technology is responsible for some elements of active labour market policy, vocational education and adult learning as well as higher education. At the same time the Ministry of Human Capacities has responsibility over the fields of youth policy, social inclusion, family policy, primary schools and general secondary education.' (Euroguidance.eu, 2021)
Most of the activities related to career guidance of young people are carried out within the framework of the National Youth Strategy 2009-2024 (Nemzeti Ifjúsági Stratégia 2009-2024) and/or the Youth Guarantee Programme, but the role of the general public infrastructure needs to be mentioned as well. The action plan of the National Youth Strategy for 2016-2017 [1535/2016. (X. 13.) Korm. határozat a Nemzeti Ifjúsági Stratégia 2016-2017. évekre vonatkozó cselekvési tervéről] requires the provision of support in young people's career planning. The related activities and the different services provided at important points of individual career-decisions – choosing a school, further education, choosing a profession, entering the labour market – create a bridge and facilitates, the transition from learning to learning and from education to the world of work.
The following actors also plays an important role in career guidance and counselling:
- Centre for Innovative Education Support (Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ),
- National Office of Vocational Education and Training (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Hivatal),
- National Career Guidance Portal (Pályaorientációs Portál).
'For primary and secondary school students career guidance is a separate field of development according to the National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv). Without being a separate subject, career guidance is offered mainly under life management and practical skills. (Euroguidance.eu, 2021)
Pedagogical professional services
Pedagogical professional services, as defined by the 15/2013 (II.26) Decree of the Ministry of Human Capacities [15/2013. (II. 26.) EMMI rendelet a pedagógiai szakszolgálati intézmények működéséről], are also become important actors in the guidance activities of primary school students. Guidance activities of the pedagogical professional services include testing the skills, learning abilities and the orientation of students and helping choose the appropriate educational institution. (Euroguidance.eu, 2021)
The Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education
The Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education (2011. évi CCIV. törvény a nemzeti felsőoktatásról) states that with their information and counselling services the higher education institutions should assist the students in career planning during and after their studies and maintain a career tracking system. The majority of higher education institutions offer such services in the form of career centres and bigger institutions run career management courses or trainings.
The core tasks of the labour departments of county government offices include not only employment and job-search counselling but also guidance, career and psychological counselling, as well as information provision on training opportunities. The services are available for both employees and job seekers.' (Euroguidance.eu, 2021)
National Employment Service and the Job Seeking Club (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat és Álláskereső Klub)
The most significant service that can be used by every job seeker is the job-seeking counsel of the National Employment Service (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat) and the Job Seeking Club (Álláskereső Klub). The job-seeking counsel is for those who would like to work, whose working aims are clear and reasonable but who have no knowledge and practice in job-seeking. There is a training available, which presents job seeking techniques, and a three-week-long Job Seeking Club, as well.
Besides that, the National Employment Service (and the formerly known National Labour Office) implemented a key Social Renewal Operative Programme (Társadalmi Megújulás Operatív Program – TÁMOP in Hungarian) project between 1 June 2012 and 31 May 2015, called 'Development for content and methodology of the career guidance system'. In the frame of the project short films about professions, career guidance questionnaires, trainings, researches and studies were made (A TÁMOP–2.2.2-12/01 kiemelt projekt eredményeinek rövid bemutatása).
The National Career Guidance Portal (Nemzeti Pályaorientációs Portál)
The National Career Guidance Portal (Nemzeti Pályaorientációs Portál) was set up in the frame of above-mentioned project and it offers targeted information for different job-seeking target groups, including primary school and secondary school students. On the website, students can find:
- questionnaires for orientation,
- information about the secondary shool system,
- scholarship opportunities,
- information for preparing a CV,
- news about the events organized for students in this topic,
- link collection to websites related to career guidance and education.
Elisabeth Youth Fund (Erzsébet Ifjúsági Alap)
From the point of view of young job-seekers, the role of the New Generation Centre (Új Nemzedék Központ) needs to be mentioned. The New Generation Centre formerly provided support in career choices with several activities but from May 2020, its legal successor, the Elisabeth Youth Fund (Erzsébet Ifjúsági Alap), took over the tasks of the Centre (For more information on the Fund, see sub-chapter 1.4 Youth policy decision-making)
Youth Guarantee (Ifjúsági Garancia)
Career guidance appears in Youth Guarantee (Ifjúsági Garancia) as well, and the programme is represented in the most significant career guidance exhibitions. (For more information about the implementation of Youth Guarantee in Hungary see sub-chapter 3.2 Administration and governance.)
The Hungarian branch of Euroguidance (co-financed by the Hungarian government and Erasmus+), among its other objectives, takes part in dissemination activities related to career guidance and also creates and maintains databases of education and training.
Career guidance required of teachers
'The fundamental task of a teacher is […] to provide continuous guidance for his/her students' career orientation and preparation for their active professional life.'
The Human Resource Development Operational Programme HRDOP 1.2.3 project entitled Complex Youth Developments – New Generation Reloaded (Új Nemzedék Újratöltve), contains the sources that can be allocated to career planning. The project has several aims and a budget of about HUF 5 billion (about EUR 13.4 million) (most of the resources of the youth field in Hungary for the duration of the implementation of the project are channelled here).
The Youth Guarantee Programme has a budget (költségvetés) of HUF 200 billion (about EUR 6 396 million) until 2022. The Programme aims to help 180 000 young people enter into the primary labour market, mainly into the private sector.
Besides these, there are elements in the currently running projects of the New Generation Programme, which are relevant for this chapter (see the first chapter for its budget: 1.7 Funding youth policy).
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