4.4 Inclusive programmes for young people
Programmes for vulnerable young people
In Italy, the problem of social exclusion of young people is addressed through multiple programmes which aim to intervene directly on vulnerable groups of young people, to respond to the needs of families with minors or to solve serious forms of social exclusion which, while not affecting only young people, shape their living conditions.
These programmes, which address the issue of youth social exclusion through multidimensional approaches and involving different institutional actors, can be traced back to the following macro-areas: independence and autonomy, work and training, integration of young migrants and support for vulnerable families with minors.
Independence and autonomy
Citizenship Income (RdC): Established by law.26 of 28 March 2019, the RdC consists of a structural, universal and conditional measure of active labour policy which aims to fight against poverty, inequality and social exclusion. On January 1st 2024 is going to be replaced by the Inclusion Allowance (Assegno di Inclusione).
This is conditional measure, subjected to requirements of:
- certain requirements of citizenship, residence and temporary residence
- economic condition
- adherence to a customised social and labour activation and inclusion pathway
It targets families and not individuals, precisely defined as:
- families with minors
- households with people with disabilities (annex 3 to Prime Ministerial Decree 159/2013)
- households with elderly people at least 60 years old
- families with members in disadvantaged conditions and included in care and assistance programmes and/or in territorial social and health services certified by the public administration.
Given this structure, compared to the RDC, it’s a measure that excludes young people from being direct beneficiaries.
First Home Mortgage Guarantee Fund the program supports young people in the purchase of their first house thanks to a loan guaranteed by the state. It is aimed at young married couples with or without children, single-parent households with minor children and young people under the age of 35 who have an atypical working contract. Through this programme, the State grants guarantees to the bank for mortgages of up to 250,000 euros, facilitating access to credit by young people. Established in 2013, the programme was refinanced until 31st of December 2022.
Care Leavers Project: the project develops within the "Fight poverty" axis of the National Operational Programme (Pon) "Inclusion" which, for Italy, represents the first programme entirely dedicated to the themes of social inclusion and the fight against poverty. In synergy with the Citizenship Income, the Care Leavers project aims to accompany full autonomy for young people who, upon reaching maturity, are exiting from residential communities or from family foster care. The proposed path can support the young person in completing secondary education, in starting university education, in taking a vocational training course or in accessing the labour market.
Work and Training
Youth for the Social: seek to promote social projects targeting young people in the country’s less developed regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, Sicily, Basilicata). The actions must target young people between the age of 14 and 35 as direct beneficiaries and must work to promote both social inclusion and personal growth. The activities seek to promote employability, activation, integration and youth inclusion. The programme is still accessible and it’s possible to find the updates and the documents for application on the website of the Youth Department.
Youth Credit Fund: established since 2010, is a tool that allows deserving young people who lack sufficient financial resources, to undertake or continue their studies through a loan guaranteed by the state. The loan, amounting to a maximum of 25,000 euros, must be returned within 15 years and can be used to continue studies after high school by enrolling in university, to attend postgraduate specialisation courses or to further knowledge of a language.
Integration of young migrants
Paths for the training, work and integration of young migrants: launched in 2016, the programme aims to promote the social and working inclusion of unaccompanied foreign minors in transition to adulthood. The objective is to support young people on their way out of the reception system by promoting their regular integration on the national territory. The project funds integration paths based on internships and integrated services through the recognition of an economic contribution (totalling 5,000 euros). Since its activation, the programme more than 2000 people completed the path and is currently living its fourth phase.
PUOI - Protection United to Objective Integration: the project is inspired by the programme "Paths for training, work and integration of young migrants", but develops within the framework of the PON and a series of integrated and multidisciplinary programmes aimed at the socio-work integration of migrants. The PUOI project is based on the activation of 4,500 “work paths” aimed, among others, at young migrants who have entered Italy as unaccompanied foreign minors.
Implementation of Regional Intervention Plans: On the portal “Integrazione migranti” it’s possible to see news and updates on the regional plans concerning migrations, with all the links to the different actions and initiatives region by region.
Support for vulnerable families with children
Universal check for dependent children: The single and universal check is an economic support to families and it’s awarded for each dependent child up to the age of 21 (under certain conditions) and without age limits for children with disabilities. The amount due varies according to the economic condition of the household on the basis of the ISEE valid at the time of the application, taking into account the age and number of children as well as any situations of disability of the children.
The check is defined as unique, as it is aimed at simplifying and simultaneously strengthening interventions aimed at supporting parenting and birth rates, and universal as it is guaranteed to a minimum extent to all families with dependent children, even in the absence of an ISEE o with ISEE above the threshold of 40 thousand euros.
Roma, Sinti and Caminanti programme: the project is dedicated to the inclusion and integration of Roma, Sinti and Caminanti children through the activation of a specific collaboration with 13 metropolitan cities. The programme develops within the framework of the PON 'Social Intervention and Non-Discrimination' axis, which includes systemic actions that do not directly target the weakest and at risk of social exclusion, but focuses on building innovative and effective intervention models for these categories. The program is now closed but the National Strategy for equality, inclusion and participation of Roma and Sinti (2021-2030) was adopted by Directorial Decree of 23 May 2022, in implementation of the Recommendation of the Council of the European Union of 12 March 2021 (2021/C 93/01 ), containing measures for the non-discrimination and social and socio-economic inclusion of Roma and Sinti people.
Institutionalisation Prevention Intervention Programme (PIPPI): was founded in 2010 and aims to innovate intervention practices against so-called "negligent" families seeking to reduce the risk of ill-treatment and the consequent removal of children and adolescents from the household. By activating a multidisciplinary team and taking into account the perspective of parents and children themselves, the programme builds personalised paths of social intervention trying to reduce the conditions of inequality caused by neglect, which negatively marks the social and educational development of children.
Each of the above programmes receives funds through different funding lines. Specifically:
- Citizenship income was funded by law December 30, 2018, No. 145. State budget for the 2019 financial year and multi-year budget for the three-year period 2019-2021 for 7.100 billion euros and, for the strengthening and provision component of social services, from the Poverty Fund (par. 4.0).
- The Youth for Social 2018 programme was funded through the Action and Cohesion Plan (PAC) totalling EUR 9 million.
- Youth Credit Fund was financed through the Interministerial Decree 19 November 2010. The endowment of the fund is 20 million euros.
- Project Care Leavers is funded through the Poverty Fund, within which specific funds are provided for care leavers.
- First home guarantee fund was refinanced in 2019 by decree-law 30 April 2019 , No. 34 "Urgent measures of economic growth and for the resolution of specific crisis situations". The refinancing amounts to EUR 100 million.
- Pathways for the training, work and integration of young migrants is funded with resources from the European Social Fund – PON Inclusion, for a total amount of almost 10 million euros.
- PUOI is funded in a supplementary way by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Asylum Migration and Integration Fund (FAMI), for a total amount of around 27,000 euros.
- The Roma, Sinti and Caminanti programme is funded through the PON programme on Social Fund resources and corresponding national co-financing share.
- P.I.P.P.I. programme was funded through the National Social Policy Fund.
- Universal check: it is corresponded and paid by the National Institute for Social Security (INPS)
Quality control system
Depending on the specific project/action, different quality control systems apply, since the authorities responsible for the different projects are different.
However, decree-law 15 September 2017, No 147, established the Unitary Information System of Social Services (SIUSS), a component of which is the Information System of Social Benefits and Needs. SIUSS ensures a complete knowledge of the social needs and benefits provided by the integrated system of interventions and social services by collecting and organising the information necessary for the planning, management and evaluation of social policies (par. 4.2).