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'Útravaló' Scholarship Programme (Útravaló Ösztöndíjprogram)
'Útravaló' Scholarship Programme (Útravaló Ösztöndíjprogram) started in 2005; its aim is to help to create opportunities for disadvantaged students. Its main provisions are to:
- increase young people’s opportunities for continuing their studies and learning a profession, gaining a school-leaving certificate or a degree,
- support talents among students who are interested in science.
Currently, four sub-programmes are connected to these scholarships: 'Road to Secondary School' ('Út a középiskolába'), 'Road to the Secondary School Leaving Exam' ('Út az érettségihez'), 'Road to Degree’ ('Út a diplomához') and 'Road to Vocation' ('Út a szakmához'). Each of them supports different target groups based on age and career choices. The programme provides mentoring and financial support. In the school year 2015-16, the number of disadvantaged students was 3 392 out of which 2 127 declared themselves Roma. The authority responsible for operating the programme is the Human Capacities Grant Management Office (Emberi Erőforrás Támogatáskezelő).
The sub-programmes 'Road to Secondary School' and 'Road to the Secondary School Leaving Exam' became EU-funded programmes for the years of 2015, 2016 and 2017, with an annual budget of about EUR 4.851 million (HUF 1.5 billion). Due to the financial rearrangement of the sub-programmes, they could not launch in 2015. [2016 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (2016 MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés), p. 27]. These programmes are financed (finanszírozás) from the domestic budget from the 2019/2020 school year.
In the school year
- 2014-2015, the number of students involved in the 'Útravaló' programmes was 12 016,
- 2015-2016, it was 3 316, and
- 2016-2017, it was 13 270. [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (2017 MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés, p. 36)]
- 2019-2020, it was 10 811 (Útravaló Ösztöndíjprogram 2019- 2020).
Arany János Programmes (Arany János Programok)
Arany János Talent Programme [Arany János Tehetséggondozó Program (referred hereinafter to as AJTP)] started in 2000 based on the regulation on Arany János Talent Programme of Disadvantaged Students (published in the Hungarian Official Gazette No. 137/200, referring to Government Decree 11/2006 of 10 November 2006 on Arany János Talent Programme.
The Ministry and the Minister of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma és Minisztere) are responsible for the calls for applications, the application and grant management are implemented by the Arany János Programme Office. The aim of AJTP is the support of disadvantaged students for entering secondary education. The awarded students - during a preparatory year - receive support to gain all the missing knowledge in different fields necessary to catch up with, for continuing their studies in one of the highest standard secondary schools or boarding schools. The target group of the programme are youngsters who
- hold a student status,
- have a disadvantaged background and
- are to start the 9th grade of secondary school during the year of the application.
Currently, 3 000 students study within the programme.
Aim of Arany János College Programme (referred hereinafter to as: AJCP) and Arany János College-Vocational School Programme (referred hereinafter to as: AJCVP) are to improve qualification level of vulnerable students’ groups, prevent drop-out, to pursue higher educational studies, to take the final examination in secondary schools and to master a profession by providing complex – pedagogical, social, health-related and cultural – support. The dormitory schools, secondary schools and vocational schools involved in the programmes should recruit disadvantaged students, and organise supporting programmes for them. Students have individual development plans, signed by them and by their parents. Students are being assessed frequently; the results of the assessments are built into the individual development plans. The measure promotes systematically the goals defined by the ESL strategy (measures on prevention and intervention).
Altogether about 4 000 students took part in the three programmes in 2016. (NSIS Monitoring Report 2016, 2016 p. 27; OFI, 2011)
National Talent Programme (Nemzeti Tehetség Program)
The National Talent Programme (Nemzeti Tehetség Program) is not specifically aimed at the integration of youth or vulnerable groups of young people, still it reaches disadvantaged students successfully. Its goal is to provide talent support in Hungary and in regions abroad with Hungarian minority population. The Ministry of Human Capacities has assigned the responsibility for the implementation of the application and grant management process to the Human Capacities Grant Management Office (Emberi Erőforrás Támogatáskezelő) which is supervised and monitored by the National Talent Coordination Forum.
The National Talent Programme consists of several, yearly changing sub-programmes for students taking part in public education. The different calls for applications specify the particular target groups themselves. The National Talent Programme has supported more than 14 200 winning applications (nyertes pályázatok) between 2009 and 2019. This programme helped the advancement of 300 000 - 350 000 young people in the 2019/2020 school year (tehetséggondozás).
2015-2016 Programmes aiming at the prevention of Roma girls’ early school leaving [Roma lányok korai iskolaelhagyásának megelőzése (ROM-ISK-16)]
It was first possible to apply for programmes aiming at the prevention of Roma girls’ early school leaving (Roma lányok korai iskolaelhagyásának megelőzése) in 2015. The Ministry of Human Capacities has assigned the responsibility for the application and grant management to the Human Capacities Grant Management Office (Emberi Erőforrás Támogatáskezelő).
It was mandatory to provide the following support within the programme:
- identification of the most deprived individuals,
- individual or group mentorship,
- group activities every second week,
- in-kind support such as passes for buses,
- musical instruments,
Roma women and girls can be regarded as multiply disadvantaged even within the Roma population; they face specific problems that mainly affect them. The level of education, employment possibilities, and the income of Roma women and girls are significantly lower than those of Roma men. Early school leaving is typical for their group. Therefore, the aim of the support provided is the reduction of the high school leaving rate among (not solely but mainly) Roma girls aged 10-18 by
- increasing their learning motivations,
- supporting their positive attitude toward further education within their families,
- improving their health conditions,
- postponing the time for them to have babies and
- reducing the possibility of their victimisation.
Starting from the years 2017/2018 at least 1 800 disadvantaged girls participated in the Programme. (According to the information provided by the Ministry in 2018.)
'Bari shej – Nagylány – Fáta máré' ('Big Girl') (EFOP-1.4.4-17)
As a continuation of the Programmes aiming at the prevention of Roma girls’ early school leaving, the scheme entitled 'Bari shej – Nagylány – Fáta máré' ('Big Girl') (EFOP-1.4.4-17) was announced on 30 March 2017. Only the target group was different (Roma girls between the age of 18 and 24), the main aims remained the same. The new target group is Roma girls between the age of 10 and 18. The project is expected to run until the end of 2020.
The Tanoda Programme (Tanoda program)
The Tanoda Programme (Tanoda program) aims to prevent early school leaving providing community space for children and youngsters in need (up to 18 years old). According to the information provided by the Ministry, the Programme reached about 8 500 students with 285 Tanodas in 2018 and 185 schools were contracted to provide support to 5 137 young people in 2020 with the Directorate-General for Creating Social Opportunities (Társadalmi Esélyteremtési Főigazgatóság).
The Tanodas provide complex services (komplex szolgáltatások) to students (e.g. learning support, catching-up, personal development). There are students who need parental assistance to do their homework, but their parents can’t help them (e.g. due to the low levels of education of their parents or not providing technical means). These students receive professional assistance in Tanodas.
Starting from the year 2019, the Tanoda Programme got integrated into the central budget of Hungary with the change of The Child Protection Act (1997. évi XXXI. törvény a gyermekek védelméről és a gyámügyi igazgatásról), which is in force since the 1th January of 2019. For the year 2019, 196 Tanoda won support for their operation. For more details about Tanodas please see sub-chapter 6.3 Preventing early leaving from education and training (ELET).
'Útravaló' Scholarship Programme
In 2015, circa EUR 1.81 million (HUF 564 million) was allocated for this aim. From 2015 to 2018 two sub-programs are financed from EU funds. In the framework of the EU funded project
- methodological development of the project and
- methodological support has been started. (Source: Internal Documents of the Department of Equal Opportunities for Children)
In the school year 2017/2018 about EUR 138 million (HUF 459 million) was spent on the programme. [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés 2017), p. 34)].
The scholarship and mentoring fees also increased compared to previous years. Therefore, in the school year 2019/2020 about EUR 7.2 million (HUF 2.6 billion) was available for these sub-programmes (Útravaló Ösztöndíjprogram 2020).
Arany János Programmes
Funds available through the Arany János Talent Programme are determined by the Regulation 40/2014 of the Ministry of Human Capacities dated 5 May on the finance of Arany János Talent Programme, Arany János Boarding School Programme and Arany János Boarding School and Vocational Programme [40/2014. (V. 5.) EMMI rendelet az Arany János Tehetséggondozó Program, az Arany János Kollégiumi Program és az Arany János Kollégiumi- Szakiskolai Program támogatásáról]. In 2014 about EUR 2.91 million (HUF 900 million) was allocated from the budget available for programmes supporting social integration, supplemented from governmental funds. [NSIS Monitoring Report (nyomonkövetési jelentés) 2015, 2015 p. 35]
The Minister for public education evaluates the previous year’s programme until 30th of October and makes proposals for the following year [204/2020. (V. 14.) Korm. rendelet az Arany János Programok megvalósítását szolgáló támogatás és ösztöndíjtámogatás rendjéről és feltételeiről].
National Talent Programme
In the framework of the National Talent Programme (Nemzeti Tehetség Program) altogether about EUR 30 million (HUF 10.840 billion) was spent for the 6 928 granted projects between 2011 and 2016. Its allocation is regulated by the Government Decree 104/2015 dated 23 April on funding of the National Talent Programme [104/2015. (IV. 23.) Korm. rendelet a Nemzeti Tehetség Program finanszírozásáról]. The programme is implemented from the National Talent Fund, the amount to be allocated and the regulations for the use of the funds are determined each year by the Finance Act.
According to the latest data, in 2019, circa 4.5 million EUR (1 500 million HUF) was collected for the National Talent Programme from tax offers. Altogether, with the funds allocated from the governmental funds, about 9.9 million EUR (3 300 million HUF) can be spent on the programme in the 2019/2020 school year.
The National Talent Programme has supported more than 14 200 winning applications (nyertes pályázatok) between 2009 and 2019. The total amount of grants awarded exceeded EUR 58,32 million (HUF 21 billion) in recent years.
Programmes aiming at the prevention of Roma girls’ early school leaving
In 2016 the allocation for programmes aiming at the prevention of Roma girls’ early school leaving [Roma lányok korai iskolaelhagyásának megelőzése (ROM-ISK-16)] was circa EUR 0.44 million (HUF 135 million); its source is budget chapter XX. titled Ministry of Human Capacities 20/59/4 on programmes that support balancing the social, economic, regional disadvantages in Annex I of the Finance Act C of 2015 on the central budget of Hungary in 2016.
The program will be extended by the help of EU-funds. A scheme entitled 'Bari shej – Nagylány – Fáta máré' ('Big Girl') (EFOP-1.4.4-17) was announced on 30 March 2017 with a budget of about EUR 6.47 million (HUF 2 billion). [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés 2016), p. 34)]
'Bari shej – Nagylány – Fáta máré' ('Big Girl') (EFOP-1.4.4-17) The planned budget available for support was about EUR 6.47 million (HUF 2 billion). The duration of the programmes is at least 24 months. [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés 2017), p. 34)]
The Tanoda Programme (Tanoda program)
As mentioned above, starting from the year 2019, the Tanoda Programme got a place in the central budget of Hungary. Until the end of the year 2018, it was basically funded by the EFOP-3.3.1-15 study contest (EFOP-3.3.1-15 tanodapályázat). Please see sub-chapter 6.3 Preventing early leaving from education and training (ELET) for more information.
In March 2020, due to the epidemic, a digital work schedule was introduced in schools. Many of the most deprived families and young people do not have the necessary IT tools for digital education. Therefore, the Ministry of Interior (Belügyminisztérium) had a development application (fejlesztési pályázat) in which the organisations, maintaining Tanodas, could submit applications to obtain more IT tools, software and other types of equipment. The available amount was EUR 950 000 (HUF 340.7 million) and the programme was financed from the Hungarian central budget.
Útravaló Scholarship Programme
The success of the Útravaló Scholarship Programme was monitored by the Deputy Secretariat for Social Inclusion until 2014 by processing data collected from the scholarship programme, in particular looking at the social status of participants and their academic successes. In the future, monitoring will be implemented within the framework of EU projects and becomes part of these programmes. [NSIS Monitoring Report (nyomonkövetési jelentés) 2015, 2015 p. 35]
The results of monitoring show that the program is successful in reaching its specific target group: In the school year 2015-16, the number of disadvantaged students was 3 392 out of which 2 127 declared themselves Roma. (Source: Internal Documents of the Department of Equal Opportunities for Children)
Arany János Arany János Programmes
According to quantitative research of the Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development (Oktatáskutató és Fejlesztő Intézet) from 2014, in Arany János Programmes the drop-out rates are low and the programmes successfully provide group mobility opportunities. [Fehérvári, 2014. Referred in: NSIS Monitoring Report (nyomonkövetési jelentés) 2015, 2015 p. 36]
The results of quantitative research (Fehérvári, 2014) also show that the programmes reach their specific target group and provide good chances for mobility. It is estimated that about 23-24% of young people participating in the programmes have higher educational achievements than excepted, compared to their peers with a similar background. [NSIS Monitoring Report (nyomonkövetési jelentés) 2015, 2015 p. 36]
National Talent Programme
The implementation of the National Talent Programme and the monitoring of programmes for supporting talents are carried out by the National Talent Coordination Forum (Nemzeti Tehetségügyi Koordinációs Fórum). This also contributes to increasing the efficiency of the programme, as well. The Forum members are the leaders of state and non-governmental organisations, including the head of the National Youth Council.
Based on research (kutatás) carried out by the National Institute for Family, Youth and Population Policy in 2016, the outcomes and efficiency of the National Talent Programme cannot be measured explicitly. The main reason behind this is its diversity: the programme consists of several, yearly changing sub-programmes, and these sub-programmes are implemented through special calls for applications. The programmes provide a wide range of different experiences, activities and opportunities for children and young people; thus they can be considered as successful, but it would be difficult to measure their effectiveness. (Bodó – Cs. Ferenczi – Mayer – Sebestyén – Szalóki – Szegő – Szombathelyi, 2016)
The Tanoda Programme (Tanoda Program)
From the 1st of January 2019, the Tanodas must prepare a detailed report on their activities and on their operation [40/2018. (XII. 4.) EMMI rendelet a gyermekek esélynövelő szolgáltatásainak szakmai feladatairól és működésük feltételeiről].