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EACEA National Policies Platform



Last update: 5 April 2023

Agóra: each Agóra is a multifunctional community centre, which aims to integrate many cultural and educational functions, and creates consuelling services. (TIOP 1.2.1.  'AGORA') (Creativity and Culture 8.4 Promoting culture and cultural participation.)

Babaváró támogatás: the 'baby waiting support' is a special type of support which is available from 2019 in Hungary. Young, married couples have the opportunity to apply for a one-time loan, in the amount of maximum about EUR 30 000. The wife must be at least 18 years old, and cannot be older than 40 years, also, it must be her first marriage. This support is available until the end of 2024. [44/2019. (III. 12.) Korm. rendelet a babaváró támogatásról] It aims at supporting the life start of young people. It is a type of personal loan so it can be used for anything (e.g. buying a property). The loan has several benefits in case of childbirths such as delaying or pausing the repayments or reducing the amount that should be payed back. (Chapter 4.6 Access to quality services)

Demokrácia (democracy): 'The functioning of participatory democracy is based on the principle that, in addition to state actors, social and economic actors are involved in processes that shape their environment, they make it voluntary and with full rights.' (Sartori 1999 Reisinger 2009)(Chapter 9)

Duális szakmai oktatás (dual training in vocational education): in 2020, the system of vocational schools changed by the 1168/2019. (III. 28.) Government Decision (1168/2019. (III. 28.) Korm. határozat). An important provision was the introduction of dual training in vocational schools (duális szakmai oktatás) with the aim to have professional experience in a 'real' work place rather than in a vocational training place. The dual training ensures that the students

  • paricipate in a profesionnal traineeship,
  • learn the business culture,
  • acquire competitive knowledge and skills.

In addition, students get a salary for this work, with the amount of HUF 100 000 - 170 000 (about EUR 270 - 457). (Chapter 3 and 6)

Együttműködési megállapodás: Internship agreement is to be set up if the practical education of the student does not exceed 40% of the education. Apprenticeships are based on student contracts and last until the end of the student’s studies. Student contracts are set up between the student and the employer, internship agreements are between the educational institution and the employer. (a website which details the internship agreement) (Employment & Entrepreneurship 3.5 Traineeships and Apprenticeships)

Felzárkózó települések program (Catching-up Settlements programme): the programme of the Hungarian government (Felzárkózó települések program), for the social inclusion of disadvantaged settlements and people living there. The aim of this comprehensive programme  is to reach the 300 most disadvantaged settlements, with a focus on children and youth. Charities and NGOs are also involved in the implementation of the programme. In 2019, 31 settlements were included in the programme located in the most disadvantaged parts of the country. In 2020 and 2021, 87 new settlements were included in the programme. (Chapter 4)

Háziorvos: a general practitioner 'provides personal, continuous, wide scale, long term basic health care service (health promotion, prevention and treatment diseases). At settlements where no local paediatrician service is available, he/she treats also children'. (KSH Yearbook of Health Statisticsm 2012) (Chapter 7)

Ifjúsági munka (youth work) and ifjúságsegítő (youth assistant): Strategical and policy documents often use the term youth work [ifjúsági munka], but the term ifjúságsegítő (officially translated into youth assistant, but routinely referred to as the Hungarian translation of youth worker) is also present both in strategical documents and everyday language of youth work. In Youth Wiki, we make a distinction, and where the term 'ifjúságsegítő' is in use, we will refer to youth assistant, and 'ifjúsági munka' will be translated as youth work. But again, it must be underlined that in many cases they are used as interchangeable or overlapping concepts. (Chapter 10)

Ifjúsági vállalkozás: an enterprise is young if at least 51% of the shares are possessed by persons under the age of 35, and the executive is also a young person under the age of 35. [Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme (EDIOP) 1](Employment & Entrepreneurship 3.8 Development of Entrepreneurship Competence)

Iskolai közösségi szolgálat (school community service):

'means social and environmental protection activity, as well as its educational processing, carried out individually or in group for the advantage of the local community of the student, which is carried out within organised framework and is independent of financial interests.' [Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (Köznevelési törvény)] (Voluntary Activities 2.5 Youth volunteering at national level)

The connection between the school community service and volunteering (iskolai közösségi szolgálat és önkéntesség) is, on the one hand that both are part of the public social responsibility, on the other hand that the goals and values are the same in these two fields: for example

  • enhancing tolerance,
  • promoting social sensitivity,
  • plus, the pedagogical goals.

The pedagogical goals can be various:

  • community building,
  • educating young people for active citizenship,
  • development of one’s personality,
  • career orientation.

The mandatory community service, as well as, volunteering means carrying out supporting activities but not in the context of jobmarket. This means, that the students cannot do jobs which would be the tasks of the employees at a certain institution, they cannot do jobs for which they would get paid. In this sense, community service has a narrower meaning than volunteering. (Bodó, 2014)

The formal framework of the school community service was defined by a regulation [20/2012. (VIII. 31.) EMMI rendelet] of the Ministry of Human Capacities, which states that the 50-hour community service means providing support without remuneration for individuals, communities, in a group or individually.  The 50 hours include 5 hours of preparation (awareness-raising), 40 hours work, and an additional 5 hours of reflection.

The activities can be the following:

  • activities with children,
  • provide support to the elderly,
  • provide support to the mentally disabled,
  • disaster management activities,
  • cultural tasks,
  • environment protection. [EMMI regulation no. 20/2012. (VIII. 31.)][20/2012. (VIII. 31.) EMMI rendelet

Kerekasztal a fiatalokért (Roundtable For Youth): The Roundtable For Youth is a formal, systematically monthly planned, optional discussion, organized by the Ministry of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma). The output of the conversations is typically a reminder of the discussions. Since 2020 the Roundtable has not been convened due to the pandemic situation. The main advisory body is currently the Board of the Children and Youth Fund (Gyermek és Ifjúsági Alapprogram Tanácsa). (For more information see sub-chapters 1.4 Youth policy decision-making and sub-chapter 5.3 Youth representation bodies)

Kiemelt figyelmet igénylő gyermek, tanuló (children with special educational needs): 

'''Children / students requiring special attention" means
a) children / students requiring special treatment:
aa) children / students with special education needs,
ab) children / students with difficulties in integration, learning or behaviour,
ac) particularly gifted or talented children / students,
b) children / students with disadvantages or multiple disadvantages according to the Act on Child Protection and Guardianship Administration' [Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (a 2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről)]

'''Children / students with difficulties in integration, learning or behaviour'' means children / students who require special attendance and significantly underperform compared to their age based on the basis of the expert opinion of the committee of experts, or face social relationship problems or suffer from deficiencies in learning or the control of their behaviour, or their integration into the community or personal development is impeded or shows special tendencies but do not qualify as students with special education needs' [Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (a 2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről)] (Chapter 6)

Kórházak: 'Hospital beds in use: among approved hospital beds those which are suitable for hospitalization (ready to receive patients after preparations) for at least 6 months. Patients discharged: persons who either left the hospital, or were transferred to another ward of the hospital or to another medical institution, or those who died. Average length of nursing: is measured by dividing the total number of hospital days worked during a year by the number of discharged patients. Occupancy rate of beds: the ratio of the actually performed and the performable nursing days. Mortality rate: the number of patients deceased as a percentage of patients discharged. Number of one day care cases: number of patients whose nursing time did not reach 24 hours and received one of the interventions defined in the Appendix 9 of Ministry of Welfare Order 9/1993 (IV.2.)'. (KSH Yearbook of Health Statisticsm 2012)(Chapter 7)

Közoktatás: 'Public education is a public service which establishes the conditions for the long-term development of the Hungarian society for the sake of the rising generation, and whose general framework and guarantees shall be provided by the State. The whole of public education is determined by knowledge, justice, order, freedom, fairness, the moral and intellectual values of solidarity, equal treatment and education for sustainable development and healthy lifestyle. Public education shall universally serve the common good as well as private objectives respecting the rights of others.' (Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education) (Chapter 6 and 8)

Műhelyiskola (workshop school): a type of vocational training aimed at acquiring the skills needed to enter another vocational training or the labour market. This type of school provides a partial qualification in a trade, in a few months. There is a so-called 'mentor' who supports the student in learning a trade. Students participating in this programs can receive a scholarship of 5%. (Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ, Műhelyiskola) [(Sub-chapter 6.3 Preventing early leaving from education and training (ELET)]

Oktatási és kulturális diplomata (education and cultural diplomat): The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade operates cultural institutes in 26 cities in 24 countries, in addition to education and cultural diplomats (oktatási és kulturális diplomata) who serve at eight Hungarian foreign representations. Among other tasks, these diplomats are responsible for increasing the number of foreign higher education students in Hungary, as well as to foster student and teacher exchange. (Chapter 8)

Szabadidő-szervezők (leisure time organizers): together with the pedagogical assistants are responsible for organizing the leisure time activities in schools.

Területi egyenlőtlenségek (territorial inequalities): After the change of the political regime the regional, social, welfare and economic inequalities strengthened in Hungary which means that the economic development of certain regions have been outstanding while others have fallen behind. (Obádovics – Bruder – Kulcsár, 2011; Nemes Nagy 1998 Reffered in Obádovics – Bruder – Kulcsár, 2011)(Social Inclusion 4.1 General context)

Többszörösen hátrányos helyzetű csoportok (multiply disadvantaged groups)Being disadvantaged can be equally understood with deprivation, it means a kind of lag which does not only refer to low income. Multiply disadvantaged means that one can be considered disadvantaged from at least 2 different aspects, e.g. low income and bad health condition. The importance of the notion can be underlined as the aggregation of disadvantages makes them even more difficult to cope with. (Andorka, 2006)(Social Inclusion 4.1 General context)

Zöld önkéntesség (green volunteering): There are environmental civil-non profit organizations in Hungary (their proportion was 4 percent among all civil society organizations in 2015). (Statistical Mirror 2016 p. 2) (Statisztikai Tükör 2016 p. 2.) (Chapter 9)