7.8 Current debates and reforms
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More young people should achieve the goals with their upper secondary education
A government inquiry has presented proposals in 2022, on measures for more young people to achieve the goals with their upper secondary education, either in upper secondary school or in municipal adult education. The main focus is on students who are not eligible for a national programme and therefore are directed to introductory upper secondary school programmes, and on students in schools for pupils with learning disabilities.
In order to develop vocational training on upper secondary introduction programmes, the investigation proposes that:
- A definition must be introduced in the Education Act of coherent vocational training that can be applied to training on introductory programmes. The minimum extent of workplace-based learning must be prescribed.
- The responsibility for the local programme councils must be expanded, so that the cooperation between school and working life must also include vocational training organised in introductory programmes and in upper secondary schools for pupils with learning disabilities.
In order to facilitate the transition to adult education (komvux), the investigation proposes that:
- An obligation must be introduced in the Education Act to offer a final guidance interview to students who leave upper secondary school without having achieved a degree, and to all students who leave upper secondary schools for pupils with learning disabilities.
- The provision on exemptions from the eligibility requirements, which enables younger students to be accepted in adult education (komvux), must be adjusted and brought up from the regulation on adult education to the Education Act.
In order for more young people to reach the goals of their upper secondary education, the investigation also proposes that:
- The provisions in the Education Act on access to guidance must be clarified. It must be stated that students must have access to study and career guidance, that the work with study and career guidance must be conducted at the individual, group and school unit level and take place in collaboration with teachers and other staff. It must also be made clear that study and vocational guidance must be part of the school's systematic quality work.
- Decisions on extended teaching must be made within a programme of measures. Extended teaching is a measure that constitutes special support because a pedagogical assessment is required and because the measure can be lasting and extensive.
Quality health care for children and young people
The government has in December 2019 commissioned a special investigator to review the conditions of health care for children and young people. The purpose of the assignment is to attain a more equal health care with preventative and health-promoting efforts for children and young people throughout the country. The intention is also to relieve the specialized child and adolescent psychiatry.
In May 2021, the investigator presented an interim report. The main proposals are the following:
- Children and young people need health-promoting and preventive care. The investigator therefore proposes rules that make healthcare's responsibility for health-promoting and preventive work against children and young people more equal across the country.
- The investigator proposes a health care programme that clarifies what kind of healthcare and support children and young people and their parents should be offered.
This makes the care for children and young people more equal, regardless of where in the country they live or which school they go to. It also makes it easier to detect and help children and young people at an early stage.
More suggestions and recommendations in brief:
- Make it easier for children and young people to get a permanent healthcare contact.
- Strengthen collaboration between healthcare and school.
- Strengthen collaboration between healthcare, social services and dentistry.
- Make children and young people more involved in planning and designing healthcare.
- Create a safer transition from child healthcare to adult healthcare.
The investigator proposes that healthcare for children and young people with mental health problems is to be developed in six steps:
- The whole society has a responsibility for mental health. For example, preschool and school are important in reducing the risk of children and young people starting to feel unwell.
- A cohesive care that works on the basis of the healthcare programme can find and help children and young people with mental illness at an early stage.
- Primary healthcare is given a clearer responsibility. Those who have mental health issues should be able to turn there in the first place.
- Primary care receives more resources to meet children and young people with mental health issues.
- Specialized care should support primary care and student health, and help determine who can receive help from primary care and who needs specialized care.
- The specialized care, social services, preschool and school need to co-operate on children and young people with extensive and long-term care needs.
In October 2021, the final report was presented. The report states that it is necessary to monitor different aspects of the health of children and young people, from pregnancy to the age of 20, from a health-promoting and preventive perspective. The main proposal is to proceed with investigating whether it is possible and appropriate to monitor the health of children and young people in national health data registers. If judged as possible, then the constitutional proposals that are necessary should be taken.