3.11 Current debates and reforms
On this page
On this page
- The MDDSZ prepared grounds for a new apprenticeship model in Slovenia that included, inter alia, reform of vocational education so the emphasis was placed on developing models for practical training and preparing a law to regulate apprenticeships. Activities were carried out in close cooperation with relevant social partners. The plan involved 1) reforming the system of vocational education; 2) gradually introducing an apprenticeship system and 3) promoting practical training among employers from 2016–2022. The result of these preparations and cooperations is The Apprenticeship Act (Zakon o vajeništvu) that was adopted in 2017.
- The Slovenian government addressed this issues (precariousness employment of young people, safe and healthy working environment) in the document ‘For Decent Work’ (Za dostojno delo), which includes a number of measures that could help prevent misuse of atypical (and often unstable) forms of work. In 2017, the MDDSZ started co-financing a project 'Regional Center for Decent Work Ljubljana' (Regijski center za dostojno delo Ljubljana), which provides information, advice and networking for all key actors in the labor market; promotes the concept of decent work; and conduct analyzes and research on labor market characteristics and trends.
- On 18 November 2016, the MDDSZ sent amendments to the Employment Relationship Act (Zakon o delovnih razmerjih), Labour Market Regulation Act (Zakon o urejanju trga dela) and Labour Inspection Act (Zakon o inšpekciji dela) in a public debate. These changes were made based on an analysis of the labour market and proposals made by social partners and professional and executive institutions. The Amendements of the Employment Relationship Act (Zakon o dopolnitvi zakona o delovnih razmerjih) that positively affect employees who are parents of small children, came into force on 18 December 2019. The Amendment included an option for employees to get paid absence from work in order to escort a child, a first-grader, to school on their first day of school. On 29 November 2019 The Amendments of the Labour Market Regulation Act (Zakon o spremembah in dopolnitvah Zakona o urejanju trga dela) came into force, however, additionsl changes in the Act are expected to be adopted by February 2021, as the Constitutional Court found some inconsistencies of the Act with the Constitution. The Amendments of the Labour Inspection Act (Zakon o spremembah in dopolnitvah Zakona o inšpekciji dela) came into force on 4 October 2017.
The Action Plan 2020/2021 of the National Programme for Youth 2013–2022 (Izvedbeni načrt Resolucije o nacionalnem programu za mladino 2013–2022 za leti 2020 in 2021) contains several measures/instruments regarding employment that are planned for implementation in 2020 and 2021. Such measures/instruments are:
- renovation of the vocational education system and pilot introduction of apprenticeships;
- promotion of vocational and professional education in a form of apprenticeship;
- promotion of practical training for employers;
- career centers for youth;
- scholarships for in-demand professions;
- strengthening counseling work with young people at the ESS;
- non-formal training and education for youth;
- on-the-job training for youth;
- incentives for long-term employment of youth;
- innovative projects for youth employment;
- development and implementation of the transition of young people with special needs from school to the labor market;
- university incubators;
- SPOT councelling services;
- public tender "First employment in the field of education 2020";
- teaching manufacturing laboratories 2021;
- social enterprises - incentives for the creation of enterprises and youth cooperatives 2020-2022;
- Mentoring schemes for social enterprises;
- start - up aid for young farmers;
- scheme for young farmers;
- student innovative projects for social benefits;
- establishment of a system for monitoring the employability of higher education graduates in Slovenia;
- Regional Center for Decent Work Celje;
- Regional Center for Decent Work Ljubljana and
- raising awareness about the possibility of mediation in a dispute between employees and employers.
In order to create quality jobs that offer adequate levels of legal, economic and social security for employees as well as further eliminate segmentation, it is necessary to implement measures that will enable the following:
- More effective actions to be taken by the Inspectorate of Labour and greater legal certainty for employees in cases concerning civil law contracts and employment relationships;
- Employers to make decisions to conclude contracts of indefinite duration and
- Greater social security to be provided to employees upon termination of employment.
Along with measures to increase the involvement of citizens of working age in the labour market, the MDDSZ wants to do the following:
- Increase the efficiency and activation of all unemployed persons and
- Conduct intensive searches for new employment during the notice period.
In November 2021, according to the ESS, the registered unemployment rate of young people (15-29 years old) fell by 1.7% compared to the same period last year and currently stands at 19.4%. While official data generally shows a downward trend in youth unemployment, according to the Youth 2020 (Mladina 2020) study, the self-reported unemployment rate among young people is much higher, which is why the authors of the study warn of so-called "invisible unemployment". Slovenia's share of young people in temporary employment is also well above the EU average.
The authors of the study make the following recommendations, among others, based on their findings:
- Measures should be taken to limit atypical labour employment, including student work.
- In view of the worsening situation regarding labour rights violations, it seems necessary to strengthen inspection.
- There is a need to reduce precarious work among young people, as it increases economic, social, legal and wider existential insecurity, which lowers young people's confidence and consequently constitutes a serious social problem (e.g. leading to polarisation).
The current National Programme for Youth expires in 2022. It is expected that the future National Programme for Youth will also take into account the recommendations contained in the "Youth 2020" study.