3.7 Cross-border mobility in employment, entrepreneurship and vocational opportunities
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One of the measures of the YG is ‘International Mobility of Young People’. It aims to help young people who want to try to find a job in the European labour market. It involves the following measures:
- EURES - Your first EURES Job (Tvoja prva zaposlitev EURES) – The purpose of the project is to offer help to young people (between 18 and 35 year olds) with finding a job, traineeship or apprenticeship in one of the EU countries, Iceland or Norway. The organisations responsible for this measure are the MDDSZ and the ESS. The measure began in 2019 and is ongoing.
- Transnational mobility for young people with fewer opportunities (learning network for transnational mobility measures for disadvantaged youths and young adults - TLN mobility) – The organisations responsible for this measure are the MDDSZ and the ESS. The implementation began in 2016.
- Open, responsive and high-quality higher education system – This measure aims to increase the mobility of students from less privileged backgrounds. The organisations responsible for this measure are the MDDSZ and the ESS. The measure began in 2016 and is ongoing.
Slovenia has not developed any cross-border mobility programmes in the field of employment. The EU Erasmus+ programme is the most important programme promoting mobility because it represents the beginning of a legal way to support such projects and their goals. As a result, an increasing number of players in the youth field have prepared international youth activities.
According to the ‘Slovenian National report’, ‘Slovenia promotes opportunities for education and work abroad through the Slovene Human Resources and Scholarship Fund, and the EURES job centres that operate within the Employment Service of Slovenia’. ‘The abovementioned fund was established in 2006 with a view to implementing the scholarship policy, allocating funds for human resources and staff development and increasing employability, promoting life-long learning and linking the education system with labour market needs’.
YfEJ (Tvoja prva zaposlitev EURES) is a targeted mobility scheme to help young nationals aged 18–35 find work in EU EFTA/EEA countries that they were not born in. It targets both job seekers and employers and provides a comprehensive mobility package that includes financial support. Presently, the scheme is expected to ensure around 1,500 work placements. The project supports mainly jobs, but also some traineeships or apprenticeships. The project is expected to end in November 2021. Specialized counsellors in EURES centres provide information, counselling and job-brokerage services for the European labour market. According to the Portal EURES, most social science graduates want to work abroad. Due to their language abilities, they usually seek job in Austria, Italy, Germany and the UK.
Additional scholarships for studying abroad are available within the international mobility programmes of the Ad Futura Foundation. Since 2009, students have had access to loans for studying at home or abroad (see the Slovenian National report).
The purpose of the project ‘Euroguidance Centre Slovenia’ is to provide Slovenian citizens with information about opportunities for training and education in other European countries. The European Commission sees the project as a way to facilitate the flow of pupils, students, teachers and young workers between European countries.
In addition to initiatives and programmes mentioned above, the Trade Union Sindikat Mladi Plus offers counselling for traineeships and employment abroad.
Support to youth entrepreneurship
This measure aims to help young people who want to pursue an independent entrepreneurial path by providing a supportive environment as well as training, mentoring, counselling, tips for starting a business, and so on.
- Promotion of entrepreneurship among young people – The public tender for co-financing projects to promote entrepreneurship among young people 2017–2019 (Javni razpis za sofinanciranje projektov spodbujanja podjetništva med mladimi 2017–2019) was published in July 2017. The aim of the tender was to promote entrepreneurial activities among young (up to 28 years) unemployed persons. The organisations responsible for implementing this measure were the MDDSZ and the ESS. Promotion of entrepreneurship among young people with facilitation of access to entrepreneurial careers– The organisation responsible for implementing this measure is the MGRT. The measure aims at reducing barriers for young individuals to become entrepreneurs.
- Basic counselling and assessment of business ideas – The organisation responsible for implementing this measure is the MGRT.
- Incentives for young companies – The organisations responsible for implementing this measure are the MGRT and the SEF. The measure is ongoing.
- Promotion of business cooperation and youth employment in youth cooperatives) – The public tender for co-financing actions for the start-up of social enterprises and youth cooperatives in 2016–2018 (Javni razpis za izbor operacij za zagon socialnih podjetij in mladinskih zadrug v letih 2016–2018) was published in July 2016. The organisation responsible for implementing this measure was the MGRT.
- National support network for young people in the field of social entrepreneurship – The organisations responsible for implementing this measure are the MDDSZ and the ESS.
- Promoting entrepreneurship among women – The organisations responsible for implementing this measure are the MDDSZ and the ESS. The measure is ongoing.
Slovenia has not adopted any specific cross-border mobility programmes. However, some regulations regarding cross-border mobility were included in the National Programme for Youth 2013–2022. The aim of this programme was to increase international mobility among youths, particularly students. The subfields that were prioritised are the reinforcement of instruments that support the return of youth to Slovenia and the improvement of cooperation between youth who live and work abroad and domestic enterprises and educational institutions.