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EACEA National Policies Platform: Youthwiki
Lithuania

Lithuania

6. Education and Training

6.2 Administration and governance

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  1. Cross-sectorial cooperation
  2. Governance

Cross-sectorial cooperation

In general the Department of Youth Affairs within the the Ministry of Social Security and Labour is primarily responsible for youth and/or youth programming and this includes cross-sectorial mechanisms of cooperation. The Department of Youth Affairs coordinates and organizes committees on monitoring specific policy measures while the Ministry of Social Security and Labour is responsible for coordinating the implementation of the National youth policy development program for 2011-2019 through Action Plan for the period of  2017-2019.  In this Action Plan specific objectives, actions, terms of implementation, budget allocations and responsible institutions for its implementation are indicated. Collaboration between ministries and stakeholders does exist to varying degrees and on different levels. Intersectoral committees have successfully been set up to manage ongoing policy processes. In general, the The Ministry of Social Security and Ministry of Education and Science handles youth and education issues. The institutional landscape in the field of youth and education is large. There is a lot of institutions in municipalities taking care of specified tasks and activities that relate to youth and education. Stakeholder consultations are legally required for amendments or drafting new policy. However, the law does not specify that evidence should be collected. Policy-makers can decide whether consultations with stakeholders and research findings should be included in policy proposals and how this is done. The Ministry of Education provides databases (e.g. Education Management Information System). These databases are available to external bodies, although they need to apply for access. Databases are not accessible to the public. The institutions that formally participate in the policy-making process usually include dedicated research agencies, evaluation/testing agencies, research and statistical departments, youth organisations, national statistics offices, think tanks and consultants. Likewise, representatives of businesses and trade unions, professional lobbyists and other interested parties can take part in the public policy-making process by providing comments in the public hearings and in parliamentary committees, to which these actors have free access. 

Governance

The governance of education includes many actors and stakeholders. The Goverment of Lithuania implements the laws, decrees of the President and resolutions of the Seimas regulating education, long-term state education programmes, the Government Programme in the field of education, approve its implementation programmes. It also co-ordinates the activities of the Ministry of Education and Science, other ministries and government agencies on the issues of education; The Government can establish reorganise, liquidate and restructure state colleges, educational institutions the legal form of which is a public establishment, when necessary – education management entities – government agencies, found institutions under the Ministry of Education and Science and assign to this Ministry the exercising of the rights and duties of the owner of the institution under the Ministry (with the exception of the adoption of decisions on reorganisation and liquidation of such institutions); The Goverment also charges its subordinate executive bodies with the task of drafting of the National Education Strategy; be responsible for its implementation as well as for the implementation of the Government Programme in the field of education. The Ministry of Education and Science 1) participates in the shaping, implementation and ensuring of the state education policy; 2) bears responsibility for education quality; 3) submits proposals and draft resolutions to the Government: regarding preparation and improvement of laws and other legal acts; funding of education, material base of schools, disposal of the property of schools; 4) in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Government or an institution authorised by it, keeps the Register of Studies, Training Programmes and Qualifications, to establish and to keep registers of qualification development programmes and events, educational and scientific institutions, licences, forms of education certificates, diplomas, certificates of education and qualification certificates, learners, students, teachers, as well as to establish and maintain information systems of state education; The co-ordinate activities of education departments of municipal administrations in the implementation of the state education policy, to submit their general regulations for Government approval; to set qualification requirements for heads and specialists of education departments of municipal administrations. The Ministry of Education and Science also coordinates the development of a network of vocational training schools and general education schools designated for learners with special educational needs within the country (region) and organises and coordinates accreditation of general education curricula as well as issues licences to execute formal vocational training programmes in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Government. The Ministry of Education and Science maintains contacts with appropriate institutions of foreign countries and international organisations, promotes independent co-operation of the country's schools and organisations with respective schools and organisations of other countries, provides funding or otherwise encourage activities of Lithuanians residing abroad in the areas of education and studies and represents the Republic of Lithuania in foreign countries or at international organisations. The Ministry of Education and Science carries out the performance review of principals, deputy principals responsible for education, chiefs of teaching organising divisions of schools in which the Ministry exercises in accordance with the procedure laid down by legal acts the rights and duties of the State as the owner or stakeholder, organises the performance review of teachers, educational assistance specialists in schools in which the Ministry exercises in accordance with the procedure laid down by legal acts the rights and duties of the State as the owner or stakeholder, and approves criteria for pre-school education curricula, a general pre-primary education curriculum, general education, teaching content of formal education (descriptions of primary, basic, secondary curricula, teaching plans) approved by the Minister of Education and Science; criteria for accreditation of secondary education curricula and the description of implementation of the procedure thereof; general criteria for non-formal education programmes of the teaching supplementing the formal education, funded from state or municipal budgets, approved by the Minister of Education and Science. The Ministry also approves the description of the procedure of consecutive learning in accordance with general education curricula, the description of the procedure of pre-school education and the regulations of in-service training and performance review and performance evaluation every five years of principals, deputy principals responsible for education, chiefs of teaching organising divisions of state (except higher education institutions) and municipal schools, the regulations of in-service training and performance review of teachers, specialists providing assistance to learners, the regulation for training of pedagogues;  to take care of teaching of the Lithuanian language and teaching in the Lithuanian language in foreign countries; to analyse whether the use of state budget allocations to education is appropriate, to report to the public on the general state of education in the country and perform other functions prescribed by the laws and the Government. Finally the Ministry of Education and Science appropriates by tender budget allocations for establishments, enterprises and organisations carrying out education, research, culture and sports programmes, projects.The Ministry of Education and Science annually makes a Report about the state of the education system in the country and the regions.

The Ministry of Education and Science exercises the state supervision of activities of education providers. The supervision of school activities is exercised by the institution exercising the rights and duties of the owner (a state school – a budgetary institution), the municipal executive institution (a municipal school – a budgetary institution), the institution exercising the rights and duties of the owner (the meeting of the participants) (a state and a municipal school – a public establishment), the owner (the meeting of the participants) (other schools), by engaging external evaluators where necessary. Supervision of the quality of higher education studies shall be exercised in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Law on Higher Education and Research. 

Municipal institutions in the area of education management implement the state education policy, set out long-term objectives of education development as well as measures for their achievement. They establisch, reorganise and liquidate education subdivisions of the municipal administration; They also develop a network of schools carrying out pre-school, pre-primary, primary, basic and secondary education curricula, children's and adults' non-formal education programmes; create conditions for the implementation of compulsory education of children and initiate that a network of vocational training and adult education providers, which meets residents’ needs, would be developed, and shall independently develop a network of non-formal education providers. An executive institution of the municipality 1) analyses the state of education, ensure the fulfilment of the state education policy; 2) organizes pre-school education, pre-primary education, general education, vocational training and vocational guidance, other children’s non-formal education, non-formal adult education and organize; 3) coordinate the provision of educational assistance to learners, teachers, family, schools, the implementation of minimum supervision measures of a child; 4) in accordance with the procedure laid down by legal acts, appoint heads and specialists of education subdivisions of the municipal administration; 5) in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Minister of Education and Science, execute performance review of principals, deputy principals responsible for education, chiefs of teaching organising divisions;  6) organizes performance review of teachers, specialists in educational assistance in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Minister of Education and Science; 7) in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Government, organises and keep an accounting of children living within the municipality; ensure that all children study according to compulsory education programmes; 8) organises testing of learning achievements of learners attending schools located within the municipality; 9) in accordance with the procedure laid down by laws, be responsible that every learner residing within its territory would be transported to and from school, organize free-of-charge transportation of learners to schools in compliance with paragraph 1 and 2 of Article 36 of this Law; 10) provides information to the Ministry of Education and Science and the public about the state of education in the municipality.

Self-governance of a school. The self-governance of a school collegially discuss issues of school activity and funding and, within the scope of their competence as defined in the statutes of the school, adopt decisions, influence decisions of the principal, perform public supervision of the school's management. The variety and competence of self-governance bodies of the school as well as the principles of their establishment is legalized by the statutes of the school. The school council acts as the school's highest self-governance body, representing the learners, the teachers, the parents (guardians, curators) and the local community. The school council reports for its activity to the members of the school community who have elected the school council. Other school self-governance bodies (teachers’, learners’, parents' (guardians', curators’)) may also function at school. Specific features of self-governance of higher education institutions are set out by the Law on Higher Education and Research.

Municipal education self-governance bodies. Municipal education councils and councils of particular education areas may be set up in order to promote participation of the municipal population in the formation of a municipal education policy and to impact the implementation of this policy. Learners, teachers, parents (guardians, curators), social partners, education providers and/or their associations can be represented in the municipal education council. The municipal education council shall analyse implementation of the overall education policy, approve long-term goals of the education development and draw the public into their implementation. 

Members of the school community may participate in education management, and unite into associations, organisations and alliances of various interest groups (learners, students, teachers, parents (guardians, curators), schools, education management level heads) that fulfil tasks and functions for education, culture, scientific research development as set out by their members and provided for in their statutes. In compliance with the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Associations, teachers' associations, societies and alliances can participate in the forming of subject content they teach, in resolving issues of teachers' in-service training. Activities of trade unions at schools are defined by the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Trade Unions.

State education self-governance bodies. The state education self-governance bodies promote the participation of the public in the formation of an education policy and decision-making on matters of education. The Lithuanian Education Council acts as an expert body and provides consultations on strategic issues of education development in Lithuania. Regulations of the Lithuanian Education Council must be confirmed by the Seimas. The General Education Council initiates and approves projects concerning the change of pre-school, pre-primary, primary, basic, secondary education curricula, qualification and professional development of teachers, provision of schools. Its regulations are approved by the Minister of Education and Science. The Lithuanian Vocational Training Council advises on strategic issues of vocational training. The Lithuanian Non-formal Adult Education Council onsiders the main prospects for development of non-formal education in Lithuania, carry out the analysis of projects for the development of the system of non-formal adult education. The Council of Higher Education is an advisory body for the Ministry of Education and Science in strategic matters of higher education development.