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EACEA National Policies Platform


6. Education and Training

6.2 Administration and governance

Last update: 2 April 2024
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  1. Governance
  2. Cross-sectorial cooperation


In Hungary, from 2022, the main body responsible for public education is the Ministry of Interior (Belügyminisztérium) and under it, the State Secretariat Responsible for Public Education.

Furthermore, for vocational and adult training and for higher education,

The most notable background institution of the Ministry of Culture and Innovation is the National Office of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Hivatal).

An important actor in education policy is the Educational Authority (Oktatási Hivatal) which is subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. It is responsible for all issues related to study, from entry into primary school, to attainment of the highest degree (with the exception of adult training) and also manages the development of printed and digital textbooks for public education.

Public actors in higher education
Hungarian Rectors' Conference

In Hungary, there are two national organisations that represent actors of higher education. The Hungarian Rectors' Conference [Magyar Rektori Konferencia (MRK)] provides representation for the entire Hungarian higher education institution system. The board consists of heads of institutions and is responsible for:

  • representation of higher education institutions,
  • protecting their interests, and
  • participating in the performance of public tasks.
National Organisation of Student Self-governing Bodies

The organisation for the representation of students is the National Organisation of Student Self-governing Bodies [Hallgatói Önkormányzatok Országos Konferenciája (HÖOK)]. It is organised and functions on a democratic basis by the students' self-government of higher education institutions. In order to improve Hungarian higher education, it carries out various activities:

  • activities linked to higher education and youth policy,
  • maintains contact with Hungarian students in the neighbouring countries,
  • initiates legislation to carry out these tasks,
  • forms opinion,
  • organises conferences and professional lectures (HÖOK, Rólunk). (For more information see sub-chapter 5.3 Youth representation bodies.)
Important organisations of teachers

Three organisations from the side of the teachers are worth mentioning, which have a role to play in education policy:

The Democratic Trade Union of Teachers (Pedagógusok Demokratikus Szakszervezete) was founded in 1986 and its activities include education and labour interest reconciliation, pedagogical representation, and legal assistance.

The Trade Union of Teachers (Pedagógusok Szakszervezete) is the oldest and, according to its membership, the largest sectoral trade union in Hungary. Its job is, among others, to provide advocacy and protection of the interests of teachers and educators.

The National Teachers Chamber (Nemzeti Pedagógus Kar) is a local government body of teachers working in public educational institutions maintained by state and local governments. It was established to support

  • the organization of the school community service and to operate the related advisory and information system,
  • the development of professional-ethical standards of the pedagogical profession,
  • the union of the teachers,
  • the recognition of teachers, and
  • the pedagogical representation of teachers in public education (A Nemzeti Pedagógus Kar Alapszabálya).

For more information on the school community service, see sub-chapter 9.4 Raising awareness about global issues.

Non-public actors taking part in the development of policies in education
The Trade Union of Employees in Higher Education

The Trade Union of Employees in Higher Education (Felsőoktatási Dolgozók Szakszervezete) is the third largest Union in Hungary, and its members are from higher education institutions (teachers, administration staff, researchers, support personnel, technical assistant staff, teachers at preparatory schools of universities and, also retired higher education staff members). According to their charter, their main tasks include among others

  • the representation of their members in any topics concerning education and work,
  • providing support to the members in labour-related topics,
  • providing information to the members on their rights and obligations regarding their financial, social, life and labour situation.
General distribution of responsibilities

The main responsible body for the maintenance of the schools is the Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre [Klebelsberg Központ (referred hereinafter to as KLIK)]. KLIK decides on the

  • financial management competence,
  • reorganisation,
  • termination of the public education institution, or
  • about the transfer of the maintenance rights,
  • the name of the institution,
  • its budget,
  • rules of charges,
  • tuition fees, and
  • social discounts.

KLIK maintains relations with the competent minister and makes recommendations on the above-mentioned decisions and carries out tasks related to the collection of statistical data. KLIK is organised in 60 educational district centres, which means that responsibilities for maintenance are distributed. The educational district centre is responsible for appointing the employees of the public educational institution (Klebelsberg Központ, Tankerületi Központok). The head of the institution is responsible for the operation of the institution. For more information, see Eurydice (sub-chapter 2.7 Administration and Governance at Local and / or Institutional Level)

Educational institutions founded by national minority self-governments or churches, as well as private schools and kindergartens maintained by cities may continue to operate. In their case, the maintainer is to determine their rules for operation.

Cross-sectorial cooperation

Generally, those ministries and institutions have to cooperate in education issues which are mentioned at the beginning of this sub-chapter. Especially for the vocational training, the Ministry of Culture and Innovation and its background institution, the National Office of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Hivatal) are responsible together. Their tasks are

  • to make decisions,
  • coordinate,
  • financing,
  • maintenance at an operational level.
Cooperation in the frame of national strategies

The Public Education Strategy 2021 - 2030 (Köznevelési stratégia 2021 - 2030) mentions the cross-sectoral cooperation. From 2022 onwards, the Ministry of Interior (Belügyminisztérium) is the main body responsible for implementing the Strategy.

There are several other organisations involved in the tasks:

Cooperation in other youth-related fields

Legislative changes in recent years have made many 'sectoral' collaborations necessary and also required, for example due to the legal division of responsibilities in the secondary school structure, in which vocational training was transferred to the Ministry of Culture and Innovation (the Ministry of Interior is now responsible for public education).

Similarly, the operation of other government sectors (ministries, such as the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Interior) as the maintainers of institutions is also a field where such cooperation take place. In addition, there is a need for cooperation for the school community service for high school students in social, health, environmental areas etc.

Another examples are the thematic weeks (see sub-chapter 9.4 Raising awareness about global issues), when providers and employers work with educational institutions.

Examples can also be found for when a company carries out school maintenance tasks.

In the field of talent management, there are also examples of sectoral cooperation, like in the case of the Genius Loci award (Genius Loci díj).

Dual training in higher education

Due to the positive results of foreign dual training (Duális Diploma) and domestic initiatives the government has introduced the dual training model in Hungary. The dual-type training programme is a special practice-oriented higher education course with the cooperation of higher education and economic operators aiming students to gain practical knowledge during their academic years. 

According to the information provided by the Ministry in 2019, the following institutions take part in the cross-sectoral cooperation: