6.2 Administration and governance
The Department for Education carries out work related to the realization of the basic principles of coordinating activities and exchanging data with domestic and international institutions responsible for the field of education, based on EU and international reform and strategic documents, laws and by-laws for all levels and types of education; participation in the preparation and coordination of activities with the aim of preparing reports, information, opinions and responses to inquiries from institutions and individuals in the field of education; preparation of regular annual information on the implementation of framework laws on preschool, professional and higher education in BiH and occasional information on the implementation of strategic and other documents in the field of education; coordination of activities on the development and implementation of the Qualification Framework in BiH; active monitoring of the application of international conventions, declarations and other documents in the field of education; participation in European programs and projects in the field of education and youth mobility; conducting expert research and making proposals for quality improvement in the field of education, monitoring the compliance of regulations from the sector's jurisdiction in BiH with the regulations and standards of the European Union; development of instruments and mechanisms for collecting and processing data and systems for monitoring and evaluating activities, policies and strategic documents in BiH related to the competence of the Department; creation of databases in areas under the competence of the Department and other tasks in accordance with Article 15 of the Law on Ministries and Other Administrative Bodies of BiH.
The competences of FBiH in education are determined by its responsibility for ensuring the right to education. In accordance with this and the legal responsibilities in the field of education, the FBiH Education and Science performs administrative, professional and other tasks, and cooperates and coordinates activities with the cantons, which, among other things, relate to: preschool, primary and secondary education; pedagogical standards and norms; textbook literature; professional education and training of teachers; standards and norms for higher education; scientific research work on the improvement of educational work; pupil and student standard, etc.
The role and functions of this ministry in terms of harmonizations and ensuring efficient coordination of education sector activities in the FBiH, as well as providing professional and other support to the cantons for the successful implementation of action policies agreed at the level of BiH, are recognized as essential.
Since the FBiH Education and Science is limited in its competences, especially when it comes to the legislative role, the possibilities of action are significantly reduced. Since it has a dominant coordinating function, the Ministry is committed, to creating models of the necessary laws and by-laws, and offer them to the cantonal and state level, whose constitutional competences are clearer, and coordinate the work on their processing into the legislation of the competent ministries.
State of education in BiH
The BiH Ministry of Civil Affairs of BiH is an administrative body which, among other things, is responsible for education at the level of BiH. Its jurisdiction is regulated by the Law on Ministries and Other Administrative Bodies of BiH.
The BiH Ministry of Civil Affairs is responsible for the following jobs and tasks:
Carrying out duties with regard to the preparation and implementation of regulations, jobs and tasks that are under the jurisdiction of BiH and that relate to the establishment of basic principles of coordinating activities, harmonizing the plans of the entity authorities and defining the strategy on the international level;
Participation in the work of international organizations;
Execution of international obligations and preparations for the conclusion of international contracts or agreements in the field of education.
The Ministry is also responsible for bilateral agreements for supplementary education intended for children of citizens of BiH who live in other countries and the development of curricula for the supplementary education of these children. In accordance with the provisions of the framework and other laws in the field of education adopted at the level of BiH, the Ministry of Civil Affairs is responsible for supervising the implementation of those laws. In the absence of direct and legally established mechanisms, the realization of this supervision by the Ministry of Civil Affairs is possible only in close and direct cooperation with the competent educational authorities at all levels. In accordance with the provisions of the Framework Law on Higher Education in BiH, the Ministry is also responsible for the coordination and development of higher education in BiH, in consultation with other competent ministries.
With the help of the international community, the Conference of Ministers of Education in BiH was established with the mandate to provide advice, consider and coordinate education policy. Since the meetings of the Conference of Ministers in full composition are rarely held, and the meetings of its coordination committee are irregular, this significantly limits the effectiveness of the Conference as a body and its proactive action within the defined mandate.
The Department of Education in the BD BiH Government is responsible for the organization and functioning of the education system in BD.
The RS Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for educational policy, legislation, administration and financing of education in the entity, entity representation in the processes of coordinating education in BiH, for the implementation of documents adopted at the state and international level, etc.
The competences of the FBiH in education are determined by its responsibility for ensuring the right to education. Accordingly and with legal responsibilities in the field of education, the FBiH Ministry of Education and Science performs administrative, professional and other tasks, as well as cooperation and coordination of activities with the cantons, which, among other things, relate to: preschool, primary and secondary education; pedagogical standards and norms; textbook literature; professional education and training of teachers; standards and norms for higher education; scientific research work on the improvement of educational work; elementary, high school and university student standards, etc.
In accordance with their constitutional competences in terms of educational policy, financing of education and passing laws, education in cantons is regulated by relevant cantonal laws and regulations. Cantonal ministries of education are responsible for education (many of which are responsible for education, science, culture and sports). Their size and capacity to perform functions differ from canton to canton.
Regulations in the field of education regulate the competences of the local level in the education sector differently. This refers to the organization of the educational process, the maintenance of school facilities, participation in the creation of part of the curriculum important for the local community, but also the financing of education. Although some municipalities have been given broader powers, they are often not carried out due to a lack of financial resources.
In addition to the Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in BiH, the long-awaited Framework Law on Higher Education in BiH was also adopted, and the Framework Law on Secondary Vocational Education and Training in BiH was also adopted in mid-2008, thus harmonizing the educational legislation at the state level in accordance with the requirements of the European Partnership for BiH. These processes initiate a modern, Euro-compatible and forward-looking legal framework. With a complete legal framework - which is applied - we can expect BiH to become part of the European area of higher education and the European research area. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure consistent implementation of the Bologna and Copenhagen processes in the field of higher and secondary education.
Quality policies towards young people start with a quality process of creating the policies themselves, but also with the inclusion of young people in the very process of creating strategies towards young people. For young people in local communities to participate more in decision-making processes, and to be more active and contribute to society, it is necessary to create adequate programs and projects that respond to the needs of young people. At the same time, when implementing policies towards young people, it is necessary to take care of the quality implementation process, adequate action plans for each proposed measure, but also to continuously monitor the activities and measures implemented.
Youth officers play a key role in this, because it is they who coordinate the development and implementation of policy towards young people. Knowledge of tools for creating plans for the implementation of proposed measures and activities, as well as knowledge of quality monitoring methods, is of great importance for all levels of government. This is the only way we can know the effect of measures implemented by local government units towards young people.