8.1 General context
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Main trends in youth creativity and cultural participation
In the framework of strategy and actions for the empowerment of young people, Youth ′17-′27, the goal is to ensure access of young people to Arts and Culture. The access of young people to Arts and Culture is a fundamental right but also an essential condition for the full participation of young people in society. It strengthens young people's awareness that they share a common cultural heritage, while at the same time it promotes active citizenship.
As mentioned in Youth ′17-′27, "access to Arts and Culture for young people should be seen as another field of learning and exercising citizenship, which can work supportively in the process of acquiring autonomy". In this context, it is deemed necessary to promote:
• Implementation of measures to facilitate young people's access to both traditional and classical forms of art and culture, as well as other – more modern and alternative – forms of cultural activities
• Undertaking targeted initiatives to encourage young creators and organizations that support modern creative industry in which mainly young people are employed
• Promoting the mobility of young artists within Europe and strengthening intercultural exchanges
• Ensuring opportunities for special groups of young people to access and participate in cultural activities
• Development of more cultural activities targeted at schools and students
There are no regular statistical studies and surveys by an official National body, which specifically refer to the participation of young people in cultural activities. However, the Pulse of Culture study captures trends in issues concerning all areas of culture: books, theater, music, visual arts, cinema, dance, with the aim of analyzing the data through a variety of questions at an age, educational, economic and social level.
At the same time, the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT) announces on an annual basis, the following studies concerning culture:
• Museums and Archaeological Sites (Visits – Proceeds)
• State Municipal Theaters and Orchestras
In Greece, a number of cultural events, music festivals, contemporary music concerts, photo exhibitions, theatrical performances, art exhibitions are held every year, in which mainly young people participate. According to a Eurostat study, Greece ranks 26th out of 33 countries in the participation of young people, aged 16-29, in cultural activities such as cinema, theatre, concerts and visits to cultural monuments.
In Greek legislation, Cultural Heritage is defined by Law 4858/2021, "Sanction of the Code of Legislation for the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage in General". Specifically, it consists of the cultural goods located within the borders of the Greek Territory, including territorial waters, as well as within other maritime zones in which Greece exercises relevant jurisdiction in accordance with international law. Cultural Heritage also includes intangible cultural goods.
Article 2 of the same law defines precisely the concepts:
• Cultural goods
o Ancient Monuments
o Newer Monuments
o Immovable Monuments
o Movable Monuments
• Archaeological sites
• Historical places
• Intangible cultural goods
The Greek State is responsible for the protection of the cultural goods that come from the Greek Territory at any time, even if they are removed from it, as well as caters for the cultural goods that are historically connected to Greece.
Since the founding of the recently established Greek State, which arose from the Greek Revolution of 1821, the State has attached great importance to the protection and promotion of cultural heritage. Monuments and collections, with an emphasis on the time period of classical antiquity, connected the new State with history and traditions shrouded in the mists of centuries and in territorial limits much wider than its borders. Museums, art galleries and archaeological sites were established which observe in their statutes the universal access of citizens and the perpetuation of the cultural heritage. According to article 5 of the Greek Constitution, every person has the right to participate in the social, economic and political life of the Country, which is completely consistent with the right to participate in cultural life.