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EACEA National Policies Platform


9. Youth and the World

9.7 Current debates and reforms

Last update: 28 November 2023

Forthcoming policy developments


Ministerial Decision

The ministerial decision number 66152/GD4/2022, concerning the Study Program "Environment and Education for Sustainable Development" of Kindergarten, Grades A-6 of Elementary School and Grades A, B and C of Junior High School states that "On our days Education for Sustainable Development, according to the official documents of Unece, Unesco and Unep, is an indisputable proposal for ensuring prosperity on Earth through environmental protection. It requires, in addition, the redefinition of the individual's needs at individual and collective level and, therefore, the revision of the system of values that we have adopted up to now as individuals and as societies".

"Education for Sustainable Development-2030" is based on the Global Program of Action, which intends to reorient education, so that it contributes overall to the strengthening of sustainable development. It also emphasizes and recognizes the key role of education in achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) signals a new vision and a different educational approach, which will enable students to better understand the world in which they live, to perceive the interconnectedness of problems such as overconsumption, depletion of natural resources, the decline of cities, gender and race inequality, the violation of human rights and environmental degradation in general, etc. and finally become able to deal with the complexity of reality.

Education for Sustainable Development, an evolution of Environmental Education, is considered as an ideal response to the request of the global community to deal with the environmental crisis and the crisis of values. It is important to mention that the term Sustainable Development is a vision and refers to four interdependent systems:

  •  The natural systems, which provide life support to all living or non-living things
  •  The economic systems, which are shaped, but also shape production processes and determine the patterns of securing resources to people
  •  The social systems, which provide people ways to live together peacefully, with equality and with respect for human rights
  •  The political systems in order to take decisions about how social and economic systems use, exploit and interact with the environment

With this decision, a Curriculum is instituted, which concerns Kindergartens, Primary and Junior High Schools in Greece and will be implemented from the school year 2022-2023.


Ongoing debates

The National Recovery and Resilience Plan, Greece 2.0 , includes a comprehensive and coherent set of reforms and investments structured around four Pillars. One of the specific pillars concerns the Green Transition.

At the same time, the Pillar of employment, skills and social cohesion refers to increasing access to effective and inclusive social policies. Its main goal is to ensure equal opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, nationality, sexual orientation, age, disability and other characteristics.

To this end, it includes reforms and investments aimed at:

  •  Ensuring social inclusion and reducing inequalities among vulnerable population groups by promoting economic activation while providing training, skills development and apprenticeship opportunities and ensuring access to effective and high quality social services.
  •  The implementation of interventions in early childhood to ensure the developmental, economic and social prospects of children and young families.
  •  The creation of an effective framework that promotes the balance of work and family life and strengthens the inclusion of both sexes in respective policies
  •  The formation of an effective system to strengthen diversity at work and in the social, public sphere, through a mechanism for recording and systematizing data and a modern corresponding training program for the country's workforce.