3.7 Cross-border mobility in employment, entrepreneurship and vocational opportunities
Programmes and schemes for cross-border mobility
There are active mobility programs in BiH that are part of the European Union (EU) mobility programs. BiH's participation in EU programs is regulated by the Framework Agreement between the European Community and BiH on the general principles of BiH's participation in Community programs, which was signed at the EU/Balkan Forum meeting on November 22, 2004. The agreement was ratified by the EU Parliament in May 2005, and in 2006 by the BiH Parliamentary Assembly, and entered into force on January 8, 2007.
At its 100th session, held on June 10, 2014, the Council of Ministers of BiH considered and adopted the Information on the Agreement between the EU and BiH on BiH's participation in the EU Erasmus + program for education, training, youth and sports. On June 6, 2014, in Brussels, the Agreement on the Accession of BiH to the Program was officially signed.
The Erasmus + program aims at strengthening the knowledge and skills and employability of European citizens, as well as the improvement and modernization of the education, training, youth and sports system for the period 2021-2027. The program is a key component that supports the goals of the European Education Area, the Digital Education Action Plan 2021-2027, the European Youth Strategy and the European Union Work Plan for Sport.
BiH participates in the Erasmus + program in the form of partial participation, and in that sense the following actions are available to BiH:
- Key Activity 1 - Mobility of individuals for learning purposes;
- Key Activity 2 - Cooperation for Innovation and Exchange of Good Practices;
- Key Activity 3 - Support for Policy Reforms.
There is no National Agency in BiH, but the promotion of programs and information on program opportunities in these countries are done by organizations that have the function of Contact Point, coordinated by SALTO SEE, namely PRONI Center for Youth Development and BRAVO - Bosnian Representative Association for Valuable Opportunities.
In addition to the above, Jean Monnet's activities, projects of higher education institutions and organizations in the field of European studies are also available.
The next program is the EU Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs. The main contact for BiH throughout the Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs programme is local contact point. Local points are selected by the European Commission, and they guide organisations throughout exchange: helping with application, helping establish a successful relationship with a suitable entrepreneur as well as providing all the answers to questions.
People applying may be offered the opportunity to participate in an induction course to prepare for exchange. A local contact point will assess the application process. Once accepted, the applicant will be able to search for an entrepreneur. A host entrepreneur's local contact point will also offer local assistance to visiting new entrepreneurs during their stay.
The contact points for this program in BiH are Enterprise Development Agency Eda Banja Luka and Women for Women International.
There is no specific legal framework for cross-border mobility of young workers, trainees/apprentices and professionals/entrepreneurs in BiH.
When it comes to the arrival of youth workers, trainees and professionals/entrepreneurs in BiH, the following system is applied:
In accordance with the Constitution of BiH, the area of labour and employment, as well as the employment of foreigners in BiH, is entrusted to the jurisdiction of the entities that have legally regulated this area by special laws. At the level of BiH, the Law on Movement and Stay of Aliens and Asylum ("Official Gazette of BiH", No. 36/08, 87/12), roughly regulates the conditions and manner of stay of aliens in BiH on the basis of work, while legal solutions regarding the employment of foreigners at the level of the entities and BD.
In FBiH, the Law on Mediation in Employment and Social Security of Unemployed Persons regulates that the FBiH Employment Institute is responsible for approving the employment of foreign nationals and stateless persons at the proposal of cantonal employment services, in accordance with the Law on Employment of Foreigners (No. 111/12), the Law on Movement and Stay of Aliens and Asylum ("Official Gazette of BiH ", No. 36/08 and 87/12) and the Procedure for Issuing Work Permits.
The Law on Employment of Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons ("RS Official Gazette", No. 24/09 and 117/11) regulates the employment of foreign citizens and stateless persons, i.e. the issuance of work permits to foreign citizens in RS, while the Law on Movement and Stay of Foreigners and Asylum, among other things, defined issuance of work permits, quotas and exemptions.
The Law on Employment of Foreigners of BD ("BD Official Gazette", No. 15/09, 19/09) provides that the issuance of work permits will be transferred to the BD Employment Institute.