7. Health and Well-Being
Carrying out preventive and curative health services in Turkey is the duty of the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Turkey is founded by the “Law on Ministry of Public Health and Welfare (Sıhhat ve İçtimaî Muavenet Vekâleti Kanunu)” in 1920. Health Policy in Turkey is basically divided into two periods: before and after 1961. While in the period before 1961, “single-aim service in wide region” hence “vertical organisation” model was adopted, after 1961, the approach of multi-aimed service in narrow region with “horizontal organisation” model was adopted. While in the period before 1961, local administrations were encouraged to open hospitals, when it was 1982, the concept of health was taken under constitutional security in a wider sense. For the purpose of provision of preventive and protective health services, it was opted for an approach of centralised planning of health institutions in the Constitution.
When it came to 2003, the Government put the “Transformation in Health Program (Sağlıkta Dönüşüm Programı)” into action with the slogan “Health for all”. In this context, aimed at the sections with low-income, rights of the citizens with Green Card were extended and health services within the context of “outpatient treatment” and medication expenses were also started to be met by the state. The program was described as a turning point by the Government. In December 2017, the Ministry of Health prepared the “Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Health 2013-2017 (Sağlık Bakanlığı Stratejik Planı 2013-2017)”. With the Strategic Plan the final goal of which was defined as “To protect and improve health level of the people fairly”, 4 Strategic aims and 32 targets were determined.
The 10th Development Plan (10 uncu Kalkınma Planı) implemented in 2013 and the 65th Government Program (65 inci Hükümet Programı) presented to the assembly in 2016 stressed the relationship between “sports and health”, stated that the sports was a means in socialising and staying away from bad habits, and attributed various duties to the Ministries of National Education and Youth and Sports on healthy life. Hence, it can be said that the importance of “sports” increased as “Preventive Health Services” in the country.