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In terms of institutional arrangement, no institution - neither public nor non-governmental - is exclusively in charger youth work implementation and advancement (in terms of policies, programmes, working tools and methodologies) and nither with youth work for social inclusion/agains social exclusion. Since social inclusion is one of the most important elements in the Youth Strategy, the Ministry of Youth and Sports took the responsibility to promote inclusive youth work, and its main instrument is working though its county offices and providing grants to youth NGOs for inclusive youth work projects. However, no systematic monitoring is done at the level of funded projects in order to be able to provide information and data on the outcomes and results of these funded projects.
The most important legal framework for youth work to foster youth inclusion is the Youth Law. Moreover, an important policy and legal document used to increase public capacity for the social inclusion of youth is the public budget grant law (law no. 350/2005).
The most important policy framework to foster social inclusion is the Ministry’s grants programme. Implemented on the basis of the public budget grant law (law no. 350/2005) and a methodology approved by Minister of Youth and Sports Order (third level legislation), the grant programme is funding small projects (maximum 5 500 Euro) for youth NGOs and NGOs working with young people. Priority or extra points are given to projects targeting vulnerable young people.
On the other hand, in 2018, the Ministry of Youth and Sports and the National Authority for Child Rights Protection and Adoption organised the programme “Ready for life” (“Pregtiți pentru viață”), targeting young people of 15 to 17 years old in foster care that participated in non-formal education programmes provided in the Ministry of Youth and Sports camps and based on learning programmes developed by experts contracted by the ministry.
In 2017, Young Initiative Association developed a White Paper on Homeless young People in Romania, based on a participative process benefiting from the input of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Labour and Social Justice, NGOs. The white Paper was the result of an Erasmus+, KA2 project.
Concerning young NEETs, Romanian Government planned funds for the European Social Fund and the Youth Employment Initiative in order to support young NEETs. However, according to the annual implementation reports of the Operational Programme Human Capital, integrating the funds planned for young NEETs, until 2017 no project targeting young NEETs have been implemented. In October 2017 the first project aiming at registering young NEETs to the Public Employment Services (the County Agencies for Employment) started administratively and actual registration of the young NEETs started in March 2018. In 2018, 3 other projects have been implemented by the National Employment Agency for the payment of subsidies for young NEETs funding a job and their employers.
On the other hand, the Operational Programme Human Capital funded 6 projects in 2018 targeting over 2,000 young NEETs with trainings – including training for professional development and soft skills needed for the labour market – and other services (including job fairs) in order to ensure their employment.
Young migrants are part of the target group of the grant projects targeting migrants in general, implemented by NGOs with the support of the Asylum and Migration Fund, managed by the General Inspectorate for Immigration. These projects are offering direct material and financial aid, as well as diverse non-formal learning activities for children, young people and adult migrants. However, none of these project targets young people in particular.
For the social inclusion of young Roma, the European Economic Area Grants supported for the period 2009-2014 (with projects ending in January 2017) and continues to support projects for the social inclusion and education of vulnerable children and young people, including Roma and young people with health-related needs, such as those with disabilities, mental health issues. Projects for the inclusive education of young people and children have been submitted to the fund operator – the Romanian Fund for Social Development – since December 2018 until Mai 2019. The programme also includes 4 pre-defined projects, two of them covering the field of youth inclusion:
- "Sustainable social and education integration through sport activities" implemented by the National University for Physical Education and Sports (UNEFS) Bucharest, in partnership with the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences;
- "INCLUDE - Inclusion of Children and Youth at Risk" implemented by the Council of Europe in partnership with Romanian stakeholders.
Main youth work providers in the field of social inclusion for young people are the NGOs. However, no list of such NGOs is available in order to present the exact name of these providers. Many of them are small and working at local level.
There are two ways of conducting activities of social inclusion for young people by the NGOs doing this kind of youth work:
- Providing social services, on the basis of the certification presented in section 4.6 and including youth work activities in the residential or non-residential centres of social services
- Fundraising for grants for time-limited projects.
Public funds are not allocated in order to build capacity for the youth work providers towards social inclusion. Funds are available for activities, but a fundraising effort is needed from these NGOs.
The Ministry of Youth and Sports organises annually several projects for training youth workers, including projects for training youth workers involved in social inclusion activities such as:
- Training for educators on combating hate speech.
- Training for social animators
- Non-formal education Laboratory.
- tineRetea - the national youth workers network.
In 2016, the Ministry of Youth and Sports organised a training for youth workers implementing activities for vulnerable young people, including NEETs.
Moreover, in 2016 the West University in Timisoara, have been launching an MA programme for youth workers, including youth workers in the field of social inclusion. The programme started with the first classes in 2017/18.
Several grant-makers and funds are available for social inclusion projects, including the European Social Fund, the European Economic Area grants for NGOs and social inclusion, grants from the Ministry of Youth and Sports. There are no available data and is impossible to compute on the basis of public data the exact amount of funding available for these projects or for the social services targeting youth among the general social services.
Inspection, monitoring and control from the funding authority ensure quality assurance in NGOs projects or social services implemented by NGOs with public funding.
For the Ministry of Youth and Sports training projects for youth workers only a financial control is provided by the Ministry of Public Finances for expenses over 5 500 Euro. No other mechanism of quality assurance is put in place.
For the MA programme for youth workers at the West University in Timisoara the quality assurance is conducted according to special rules applied for higher education by a special agency: Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education.