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EACEA National Policies Platform


5. Participation

5.7 “Learning to participate” through formal, non-formal and informal learning

Last update: 28 November 2023
On this page
  1. Policy Framework
  2. Formal learning
  3. Non-formal and informal learning
  4. Quality assurance/quality guidelines for non-formal learning
  5. Educators' support

Policy Framework

There is no specific national strategy or regulation concerning the development of social and civic competences in Romania. Civic or citizen education is mentioned among other elements in the Youth Strategy for 2015-2020. Civic education is a mandatory subject for primary and lower secondary education (until the 8th grade, when pupils are 14-15 years old). Citizen education is an optional subject for upper secondary education.


Formal learning

Optional stand-alone subjects regarding social and civic education are available for upper secondary education. Schools can choose to integrate the subject in their curricula, usually taught by professors of history or social sciences. Sociology, economy and philosophy are mandatory subjects in upper secondary education. For all optional and mandatory subjects, the Ministry of Education develops and approves the curricula and publishes it on its website.


Non-formal and informal learning

Participative structures within formal education settings

According to the Education Law no. 1/2011, pupils delegate their representatives to the School Councils and students vote on their representative on the faculty councils and the University senate of their respective faculty and University.


The main mechanism ensuring non-formal and informal learning, through practice, by direct participation, at the level of educational institutions, is the School Students Council. It was reorganised in 2016.


No information is available on top-level or large-scale publicly funded programmes aiming at training school staff and pupils to enhance their skills to participate in decision-making structures


Measures to encourage student participation in the local community and wider society

The Ministry of Youth and Sports organised every year, until 2019, the Summer Schools and Summer Universities, having an important component of civic non-formal education.


In Romania, there are no provisions forming part of national curricula or education regulations/guidelines encouraging pupils at upper secondary level to take part in activities serving the (local) community outside school. Moreover, no information is available on top-level policy on partnerships between formal education providers, youth organisations and youth work providers.


Supporting non-formal learning initiatives focusing on social and civic competences

Among the projects financed by the Ministry of Youth and Sport through the grant schema described in section 5.6 Supporting Youth Organisations, projects promoting and contributing to the development of civic and social competences are funded. However, there is no systematic monitoring and data are not published on the number of these projects, their outcomes and results.



Quality assurance/quality guidelines for non-formal learning

There is no dedicated mechanism for ensuring the quality of any civic, social or citizens education initiative.


Educators' support

A laboratory of non-formal education was organised by the National Agency for Erasmus Plus until 2014 and another one was organised by Ministry of Youth and Sports in 2016. The event is a learning opportunity for trainers and educators and covers a large number of methods, including very useful methods for civic education.


There are no other officially endorsed specific websites, guidelines, handbooks and other pedagogical material and tools supporting educators.