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The law no. 279/2005 with extensive amendments from 2013 regulates apprenticeship. The law no. 335/2013 regulates traineeship only for university graduates. In 2018 a law on internship has been adopted, law no. 176/2018. The provisions of this law aplay to any person over 16 and in particular crcumstances over 15.
For all of these working-learning arrangements written contracts are mandatory. There is no specific regulation on transparency of the working conditions and job description in traineeships', apprenticeships' and internships’ notices, but they cannot exceed a given amount of time (less than the normal working day and week of an employee) and they need to be specified in writing at the beginning of the working-learning arrangement.
Participants in internship, apprenticeship, traineeship have social security coverage ensured by their employer, but according to the law, the employer can receive a subsidy from the National Employment Agency monthly for each apprentice or trainee, but not for the interns. This subsidy is over 470 Euro (2 250 lei) each month for each apprentice or trainee. The subsidies are not determine as a part or percentage of the employers costs and are not varying in accordance to the real costs. Therefore, for fields of work where production costs are higher, like in some industries, the subsidy is the same as in some service fields where production costs are very low. In this context, employers in industry are not motivated at all to train apprentices.
Evaluations in the field of employment show these benefits are not motivating employees to implement apprenticeship and traineeship, considering the administrative burden of asking and receiving the subsidies.
Traineeships and apprenticeships are not a requirement in the curricula.
Traineeship and apprenticeships are part of the Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan and eligible activities in European funded projects, under the Youth Employment Initiative and the European Social Fund. They have not been introduced in Romania as part of the Youth Guarantee scheme, but have been reinforced and the apprenticeships have been reformed in application of the scheme.
Until 2015 different funding was available for employers, apprentices and trainees benefiting from state budget subsidies and for those benefiting from European funded projects for the same activities. For the projects implemented starting in 2017 the subsidies will be equalised, according to programming documents in consultation.
Promotion of traineeships and apprenticeships have been envisaged by the government only as part of the European funded projects, under the Youth Employment Initiative and the European Social Fund. Therefore no large-scale communication or awareness raising initiative have been implemented and no massive campaigns had been organised neither by the public authorities nor the non-governmental organisations.
A formal evaluation is demanded at the end of both of these working-learning processes and a certification is issued for the person passing the evaluation. The employer pays the evaluation and the procedure is organised:
- by specialised evaluation centres, in the case of the apprenticeship
- by the employer, through a specially organised committee, in the case of traineeship, but no cooperation mechanisms are put in place between the two measures.
The certification is used:
- as an official full qualification for a specific job, when released as a result of an apprenticeship process
- as a recognition of specialised practical experience, when released as a result of an traineeship process
Funding for traineeship and apprenticeship programmes provided within the legal framework is ensured by a special budgetary fund of social insurance and paid by the National Employment Agency. Funding form European funds, namely the Youth Employment Initiative and the European Social Fund is also available for traineeship and apprenticeship.
Starting in 2017, the National Employment Agency have been funded by the European Social Fund, Operation Programme Human Capital, for traineeship and apprenticeship projects to support with the legal subsidies, of about 780/month, each apprentice or trainee of any interested employer. The following projects are supporting young NEETs for traineeship and apprenticeship:
- in 2018-2022, the project UNIT 2 RMD supports the trainship and apprenticeship of young NEETs in Bucharest and Ilfov region with 6 053 956 lei (about 1 270 000 Euro) and project UNIT 2 RMPD supports the trainship and internship of young NEETs in less developed regions with 38 629 300 lei (over 8 115 000 Euro)
- since 2019, the project UNIT 5 RMD & RMPD supports the trainship and apprenticeship of young NEETs with about 76 million Euro
- according to UNIT 5 project presentation, about 76 000 000 Euro are allocated for trainship and apprenticeship of unemployed persons that are not young NEETs, including young people over 26 years old.
Labour inspection is in charge with ensuring the quality of labour conditions for the trainees, apprentices and interns. Host organisations/emplyers need to do their own quality assurance and evaluation, but there are no information available on the evaluation of the quality of the training.