5.7 “Learning to participate” through formal, non-formal and informal learning
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Hungary is one of the European countries where there is no independent strategy for civic education; it does not appear as separate compulsory subject in school, but is part of the National Core Curriculum and the Framework [(Nemzeti Alaptanterv (hereinafter referred to as NAT)]. On the other hand, several legal regulations contain general instructions on the teaching of knowledge and key competences mentioned in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and other international statements.
''In Hungary, the National Core Curriculum makes 'education for active citizenship and democracy' a key development task across the whole education system and leaves schools the freedom to integrate 'homeland studies' as a compulsory separate subject at primary level.' [Citizenchip Education at school in Europe (2017)]
The NAT, together with local curriculums provides the reference framework regarding social and civic competences in Hungary. NAT defines the tasks of the local governments concerning public education and also the literacy set to be acquired according to the Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről). The aims of the principles and development tasks are detailed in framework curriculums. These define the developmental requirements during the process of teaching and learning and the depth of the expected knowledge. These requirements refer to youth at school age. Special target groups are usually young people between 8 and 18 years old.
Social and civic education appears as a stand-alone subject in grades 8 and 12 from 2020, but social and civic education is part of the general and vocational curricula in both primary and secondary education (see above). According to the regulations of NAT, civic education is part of the subject history, social studies, civics and economics.
''the teaching of the compulsory subject 'history, social and citizenship studies' starts only at ISCED 2''. [Citizenchip Education at school in Europe (2017)]
''In Hungary, the subject 'history, social and citizenship studies' taught in grades 5 to 12 includes sections on 'basic citizenship knowledge', 'media models and institutions' as well as 'social knowledge'.'' [Citizenchip Education at school in Europe (2017)]
The curriculum of the Hungarian systems contains both specific objectives and learning outcomes.
Critical thinking is theoretically included in the curriculum, such as:
- critical thinking,
- multi-perspectivity and logical thinking,
- analytical skills.
'Cultivating critical thinking and being explicit about it is not confined to general education but extends to school-based vocational education as well'. [Citizenchip Education at school in Europe (2017)]
According to the National Curriculum, the central goal of civic education is to support the development of
- attitudes and behaviour.
The aim is to introduce young people the democratic state and public life based on the rule of law. It is important to educate pupils for
- civic participation,
- the respect of law,
- respect for the rules of coexistence,
- respect for human dignity and human rights,
- non-violence and fairness.
NAT underlines that
'participation in public affairs requires the development of creativity; individual reflective thinking; analytical and debate skills which contribute to the establishment of a democratic attitude.' [National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv)]
Besides the above-listed subjects, 'social studies' is compulsory for all IVET students.
School student councils
School student councils [diákönkormányzat (hereinafter referred to as DÖK)] provide the formal structure of participation for pupils. The Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről) states that schools
'may establish school student councils in order to organise their joint activities in connection with education, to educate for democracy and public responsibility.'
One teacher per school is invited by the students to assist the work of the school student councils. (See sub-chapter 5.3 Youth representation bodies.)
'Many countries provide support materials or make non-binding recommendations to include particular events at school level such as the commemoration of specific days with national, European or global significance. Twenty-three [including Hungary] provide information for schools to support events marking national days...' [Citizenchip Education at school in Europe (2017)]
Every school has a compulsory school ceremony or commemoration on public holidays that commemorate Hungarian (historical) revolutions and victims of retaliation. Schools make decision on how to commemorate them.
Programmes promoting participation skills of students and teachers
Programmes supporting participation skills of students and teachers are not common at primary and at public education. There are some schools which dedicate attention and capacity to organise similar programmes together with NGOs but in most schools there are no such initiatives.
School community service
School community service is an example of promoting student participation. The Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education (2011. évi CXC. törvény a nemzeti köznevelésről) (in force since 1 January 2015) requires students to complete 50 hours of community service before graduation. It is the responsibility of schools to organise community service depending on the student's choice. Students can do community service with
- state or local-governmental institutions,
- NGOs or other non-profit organisations,
- churches or
- private individuals.
Other large-scale policy initiatives
Other large-scale policy initiatives and programmes regarding participation are not common. In some towns, town-level self-governments (school student councils at town level) [városi diákönkormányzatok (hereinafter referred to as VDÖK)] were established which provides the opportunity for young people to articulate their opinion towards decision-makers at the town level. The VDÖKs operate well at only a small number of towns, at most places they do not exist. They do not have unified funding rules.
Although these programmes hold on the national level, they are not attractive for many youngsters. Programmes mentioned in sub-chapter 5.8 Raising political awareness among young people, such as:
- Parliamentary Youth Day,
- Parliamentary tutorial,
Partnerships between formal educational institutions and youth organisations
As far as we know there is no legal framework for the creation of partnerships between formal education institutions and youth organisations. The Erasmus+ programme provides funding for cross-sectoral projects, but the implementation of certain projects depends on the following factors:
- the openness, motivation,
- the financial means of schools, and
- the teachers' workload.
Initiatives to support civic education of youth by the civil society
There are and there have been initiatives to support civic education of young people through civil society. A good example is the Foundation for Democratic Youth [Demokratikus Ifjúságért Alapítvány (hereinafter referred to as DIA)], which has been running programmes to promote the active participation of young people for 15 years, for example using the methodology of democratic debates. More than 100 000 young people and 1 000 teachers and youth workers participated in the programmes of this organisation. (Youth Policy Review p. 40)
Financial support and national level programmes
There is no detailed information on financial support for these programmes. There is also no detailed information on programmes at national level that establish or support educational projects for the development of civic and social competence.
Uniform national principles and guidelines for the recognition of informal and non-formal learning outcomes are currently being developed in Hungary.
Between 15 November 2011 and 30 November 2015 the Hungarian Qualifications Framework [Magyar Képesítési Keretrendszer (hereinafter referred to as MKKR in Hungarian)] was developed as part of the TÁMOP-3.1.8 project titled as 'Overall quality development in public education' (TÁMOP-3.1.8 Átfogó minőségfejlesztés a közoktatásban). A government regulation in 2012 accepted the new, learning-outcome based MKKR. The aim of MKKR (Magyar Képesítési Keretrendszer) is to systematise the different levels and forms of education and training in a unified framework, such as the knowledge and competencies gained through non-formal and informal learning. In the evaluation system
- responsibility and
- attitude descriptors are important aspects which all have 4 layers.
We do not have information yet on how MKKR is implemented in projects of non-formal learning. We do not have information on mechanisms, indicators and outcomes. All in all, it is generally true that the evaluation of such projects/trainings are based on the monitoring aspects of the relevant grant system/grant operator.
Several textbooks on social and civic knowledge have been published. Usually, manuals and accompanying pedagogical material are available on the websites of various NGOs and schools. In addition, there are other framework curriculum materials for teachers on the internet. But they do not reach a wide range of educators.
Youth experts (special helpers, teachers, policy-makers, researchers) sometimes have the opportunity to participate in various events on different youth-related topics. A smaller number of these events are organised by the state.
In recent years there have also been several initiatives by non-governmental organisations, such as
- Hungarian Association of Youth Service Providers (Ifjúsági Szolgáltatók Országos Szövetsége),
- 'Youthmatter' ('Ifjúságügy'); or
- Foundation for Democratic Youth (Demokratikus Ifjúságért Alapítvány, hereinafter referred to as DIA),
- Pillar Foundation (Pillár Alapítvány).
There are some organisations that (under certain circumstances) organise courses on debating culture (for example, DIA), but they do not reach a wide mass of young people.
The different Erasmus+ actions also provide opportunities for educators to support the development of civic competences, although teachers' participation depends on individual motivation.
According to the Government's regulation [277/1997. (XII.22.) Korm. rendelet a pedagógus - továbbképzésről, a pedagógus - szakvizsgáról, valamint a továbbképzésben résztvevők juttatásairól és kedvezményeiről] as a general rule, it is mandatory for teachers to participate in pedagogical professional trainings and pass an examination (pedagógus szakvizsga). The aim of these is to renew, expand and develop the knowledge and skills that are needed to deal with children and students.
Among these, there are a few trainings that deal with school community service or raising awareness of rights or include human rights, democratic values as part of its subjects. These trainings are mainly for etchics teachers, moreover teachers with interest in civic education. Universities (szakirányú továbbképzés) and Parliament (pedagógus továbbképzés) have the possibility to organise such trainings.