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EACEA National Policies Platform


3. Employment & Entrepreneurship

3.7 Cross-border mobility in employment, entrepreneurship and vocational opportunities

Last update: 7 January 2021
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  1. Programmes and schemes for cross-border mobility
  2. Legal framework

Programmes and schemes for cross-border mobility

Besides participation at national level in European programmes such as Erasmus+ (which includes a specific programme in the scope of cross-border mobility called Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs) and Your first EURES job, Spain has launched a number of specific programmes relating to the cross-border mobility of young people:

The Youth Programme (Programa Jóvenes) is an international mobility programme promoted and funded by the Secretariat of State for Migration, and it is conceived to encourage the social and work integration of Spanish youth living abroad who are under 35 years of age. It includes specific programmes of training and traineeship within companies, professional specialisation and entrepreneurship, as well as of foreign language improvement.

At a national level, not only the Public Administration, but also other bodies launch youth cross-border mobility programmes. Such is the case of the Chambers of Commerce and their Youth Mobility Plan (Plan de Movilidad).

Also at a sub-national level there are programmes promoting cross-border mobility among youth: Programa TLN Mobilicat (Catalonia) or Programa Emprendejoven+ (Castile and Leon).


Legal framework

Companies participating in youth cross-border mobility programmes are obliged to respect national law related to employment and social protection matters, and to guarantee protection and suitable benefits (such as social security, health and accident insurance) both for workers and for people carrying out mobile traineeship or apprenticeship programmes. In addition, they have to guarantee payment and provide a written contract stating professional goals (or of vocational training), duration of the contractual relationship, working hours, rights and responsibilities, payment and dispositions concerning social security.

In the case of cross-border mobility of youth from the European Union, they shall ask for a registration certificate (certificado de registro) to cover periods of over three months. In the case of youth from other countries, they shall ask for an authorisation of temporary residence and work as employees for a determined period of time and for training and professional traineeship purposes (autorización de residencia temporal y trabajo por cuenta ajena de duración determinada para la formación y prácticas profesionales). In all cases, foreign residents have the right to access social security benefits and services in the same manner as Spanish citizens according to the Article 14 and 25 of Organic Law 2/2009, of 11 December on rights and freedom of foreigners in Spain and their social integration (Ley Orgánica 2/2009).

The type of basic contract is the traineeship one, addressed to those under 30 years of age or those in possession of a university degree, intermediate or higher vocational training diploma, or similar qualifications, or a certificate of professional skills for those who have finished their studies in less than five years (seven in case of workers who have some type of disability). Workers under this type of contract rely on the protection of the social security affiliation: the right to pay contribution for the months at work, health coverage and social security (Comisiones Obreras, 2015).