6.6 Social inclusion through education and training
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The "Educational Act" defines the following categories of children with so called special educational needs:
- children / pupils with health disabilities
- children / pupils with disabilities
- children / pupils sick or physically weakened
- children / pupils with developmental disorders
- children / pupils with behavioural disorder
- children / pupils from a socially disadvantaged environment
- talented children / pupils
Measures to strengthen social inclusion by type of special educational needs:
Education of children / pupils with health disabilities takes place:
- in special schools
- in special classes
- in classes or educational groups along with other children / pupils
Education of children / pupils with health disabilities is done through:
- special educational programs
- individual education programs that respect special educational needs.
Special measures taken during the educational process:
- involvement of teachers ‘assistants,
- special learning and compensatory aids,
- textbooks and specially adapted texts,
- the school provides services free of charge.
Education of takented children / pupils is taking place:
- in schools with a focus on the development of intellectual talent,
- in schools focusing on the development of artistic talent,
- in schools with a focus on the development of sport talent.
Education of children / pupils from socially disadvantaged environment:
Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport offers financial contribution for:
- wage or salary of teacher's assistants
- equipment - didactic techniques and teaching aids
- participation of pupils in activities such as trips, excursions, language courses, sports training, schools in nature and other activities
- education and training of pupils in specialized classes
- prevention the transmission of contagious diseases
- an extra charge for working with pupils from a socially disadvantaged environment
School facilities for educational counselling and prevention carry out:
- psychological services,
- pedagogical services,
- special pedagogical activities, including speech therapy and medical-pedagogical activities
- social activity aimed at optimizing the educational, educational, psychological, social and career development of children from birth to completion of vocational training
Advisory services are also provided to legal guardians of children and pedagogical staff.
All measures are funded from the state budget through the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic.
It is important to state that the "Educational Act" will be amended in 2021 (as well as the Act on pedagogical and professional staff).
MESRS is preparing the Strategy on inclusive approach in education. For this purpose, for the first time in Slovak history, a separate department of inclusive education was established at the MESRS.
More information Eurydice: Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education in Slovak Republic.
Education of school staff is provided by the Institution for Teachers´ Education and Training through educational programs aimed at promoting inclusive education such as:
- Creation of individual educational programs
- Development of competences of a pedagogical employee for work with pupils with special educational needs in vocational training
- Components of systematic school development planning in the context of the creation of an inclusive environment
- Innovative education in the field of inclusive education for children from marginalized Roma communities.
The largest financial instrument to support non-formal education with the priority of supporting disadvantaged groups is the Programmes for Youth for the years 2014 – 2020 by MESRS.
Subsidies are primarily allocated to activities that support young people with fewer opportunities, e.g. young people who are disadvantaged by educational, social, physical, psychological, economic, cultural reasons or because they live in remote areas.
The Centre for Inclusive Education was authorized by the MESRS to provide innovative education to pedagogical and professional schools staf in the field of inclusion.
Social cohesion and equal opportunities
The topic of social cohesion in formal education
Education in the field of social cohesion and equal opportunities is part of the Citizenship education curriculum (ISCED 3A) and Ethics (ISCED 1, 2 and 3).
Integrated theme Multicultural education is an obligatory part of higher secondary education.
Its aim is to promote respect for cultural diversity within formal education.
Multicultural education can take place in form of:
- an integrated part of suitable subjects
- separate subject
The choice of how and when to implement integrated themes is the responsibility of each school.
An indispensable condition for efficiency and informal implementation of the topic is the use of activating, interactive learning methods.
Preparation of teachers and youth workers
Institution for Teachers´ Education and Training prepares teachers through special trainings such as:
- Development of competences of the teaching staff in the field of prevention of extremism
- Using multicultural education against prejudice and racism
National Institute for Education prepares training programmes for teachers to promote inclusive education:
Intercultural education in elementary school with pupils from Roma communities implemented in 2017. Training is continuation of project co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area and the State Budget of the Slovak Republic Innovative education for primary school teachers in order to increase their intercultural competences in the educational process of Roma pupils (2013-2016).
Erasmus+ Educating teachers in the are a of inclusion of children of foreigners (2016 - 2018). The main objective of the project is the creation of a methodological framework supporting teachers in the educational process and the inclusion of children of foreigners in schools and school facilities in the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Italy and Greece.
Open call: Regional and multicultural education for pupils belonging to national minorities 2017. Call of MESRS to support multicultural education and global development projects. 12 supported projects in 2017amounting to 20 790 €
National project financed from ESF “Praktik” (2013 -2015) has prepared the Thematic Education Program "The World Is Diversified - Supporting and Developing Education for Citizenship and Multiculturalism through the Experience", which supported the development of competences of youth workers and youth leaders in multicultural education.
The development of the competencies of youth leaders and youth workers in this area was also supported by ESF project “KomPrax” through advanced training:
- Methods and techniques of work with disadvantaged youth groups
- Mediation skills, self-advocacy and protection against discrimination
IUVENTA - The Slovak Youth Institute also provides some of these trainings in 2017 for new youth workers.
Other examples of activities to promote social cohesion of NGO also in part 4.5 Initiatives Promoting Social Inclusion and Raising Awareness and 4.7 Youth work to foster social inclusion.