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EACEA National Policies Platform


6. Education and Training

6.6 Social inclusion through education and training

Last update: 7 January 2021
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  1. Educational support
  2. Social cohesion and equal opportunities

Educational support

The Organic Law of Education (Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE)), of 2006, establishes in its Title II “Equity of Education” the obligation of public administrations responsible for educational policy and management to provide the necessary means for all pupils to reach their maximum personal, intellectual, social and emotional development. Although the LOE made reference to students "with special educational needs", the Organic Law for the Improvement Of The Educational Quality (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa (LOMCE)), of 2013, which updates the LOE modifying some of its parts, goes on to speak of students "with specific need for educational support". It also introduces as a novelty the inclusion of students with Attention Deficit And Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within students with specific need for educational support.

The Education Law LOMCE therefore establishes three groups of students to which the measures and programs in the field of inclusion in Education are intended: the set of students of the educational system, students with specific need of educational support, and students in a situation of social exclusion [1]. Adhering to the parameters of Youth, the Transition to Adult Life Training Programs (Programas de formación para la transición a la vida adulta)[2] are intended for students who are 16 years-old who have completed Compulsory Basic Education in a Special Education Center and those who are advise to continue their formative process through this programme [3]. The LOMCE establishes the objectives and guidelines to be followed in terms of attention to diversity in CSE and baccalaureate (Atención a la diversidad en ESO y Bachillerato).

As far as Higher Education is concerned, the Organic Law of Universities (Ley Orgánica de Universidades, LOU) establishes the criteria for the designation of the recipient students of the scholarships and specific support aid[4]. For these students, there are different scholarships and other specific support measures[5]. For its part, VT is conceived as an instrument for the inclusion of young people by their ability to reintegrate into the educational system, especially for those young people with school performance problems and educational dropouts at an early age, along with other problems.

In the field of non-formal education, the Inclusion Plan for students with special educational needs[6] (Plan de Inclusión del Alumnado con Necesidades Educativas Especiales[7]), from the National Center for Innovation and Research Educational ((CNIIE))  is aimed at improving the educational attention to all students and, specifically, to the ones who present special educational needs.

For its part, the Autonomous Regions establish plans and strategies for attention to diversity and inclusive education (planes y estrategias de atención a la diversidad y educación inclusiva) that include measures and initiatives related to the youth as well. The Forum for Educational Inclusion of Students with Disabilities (Foro para la Inclusión Educativa del Alumnado con Discapacidad), is an advisory collegiate body, conceived as a space for meeting, debate, proposal, promotion and monitoring the inclusion policies of students with disabilities in all lessons offered by the educational system.

Social cohesion and equal opportunities

The Strategic Plan for School Coexistence (Plan Estratégico de Convivencia Escolar) is aimed at preventing all kinds of harassment and school violence and is articulated in tone to seven fundamental points and includes different lines of action. It also establishes the mechanisms for evaluating the Plan. The portal of the Strategic Plan for School Coexistence (Convivencia Escolar), with a budget expense of 4 million euros, has a section on Training (Formación) with information and tools aimed at teachers and educational centers in matters of coexistence. Also aimed at the faculty is the “Relate Project” (Proyecto Relaciona), an initiative of the Institute for Women and Equal Opportunities (Instituto de la Mujer e Igualdad Oportunidades (IMIO)) funded by the different Autonomic Administrations and the European Social Fund, in collaboration with the regional administrations, to educate in values that allow us to achieve a more egalitarian society.

In addition, the Irene Programme (Programa Irene) for information, training, and prevention of sexual violence in young people and adolescents, it is part of a series of Education Projects of the Institute for Women and Equal Opportunities (Proyectos de Educación del Instituto de la Mujer e Igualdad Oportunidades), like the “Exchange Project” (Proyecto Intercambia) for equal opportunities. There are also awareness-raising and training activities in the field of education, such as the campaign Educating for Equality (Educando en Igualdad). On the other hand, the Autonomous communities implement their own plans of coexistence and attention to diversity (Planes de convivencia y atención a la diversidad).

Finally, there are initiatives such as the CNIIE’s Coexistence, Innovation and Diversity Project, (Proyecto Convivencia, Innovación y Diversidad), whose objective is to coordinate the actions of attention to the diversity and interculturality for coexistence, with special attention to the gypsy population, the immigration, the social inclusion and the promotion of gender equality, to contribute to the construction of a global citizenship by forming citizens capable of knowing how to coexist democratically with others, to participate in the social, labor, cultural and political life of their world, trying to improve it.

[1] For more detailed information see the provisions in relation to Spain in Eurydice. Chapter 12. (Eurydice. Capítulo 12).

[2] Order from 22nd of March, 1999 regulating training programmes for the transition to adult life for pupils with special educational needs in schools in Special Education Centres. (Eurydice. Capítulo 12Orden de 22 de marzo de 1999 por la que se regulan los programas de formación para la transición a la vida adulta destinados a los alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales escolarizados en Centros de Educación Especial).

[3] The choice of this modality requires the previous psycho-pedagogical evaluation carried out by the corresponding educational services and psycho-pedagogical orientation.

[4] Students with special needs or disabilities associated with disability, students with high intellectual capacities, students in socioeconomic disadvantage, as well as people with family burdens, victims of gender violence and victims of terrorism.

[5] See the provisions of this in Eurydice. Chapter 12.5.

[6] The Plan is inserted in the Educational Support Project (Proyecto Apoyo Educativo)of the CNIIE.

Anchor[7] It is composed of representatives of the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) (Comité Español de Representantes de Personas con Discapacidad (CERMI)), the State School Board (Consejo Escolar del Estado), the Sectoral Conference of Education (Conferencia Sectorial de Educación), the General conference on University Politics (Conferencia General de Política Universitaria), University Student Council (Consejo de Estudiantes Universitarios) and the University.