Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website.
Skip to main content
European Commission logo


EACEA National Policies Platform


6. Education and Training

6.6 Social inclusion through education and training

Last update: 28 November 2023
On this page
  1. Educational support
  2. Social cohesion and equal opportunities

Educational support

The Organic Law of Education (Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE)), of 2006, establishes in its Title II “Equity of Education” the obligation of public administrations responsible for educational policy and management to provide the necessary means for all pupils to reach their maximum personal, intellectual, social and emotional development. Although the LOE made reference to students "with special educational needs", Organic Law 3/2020, also known as Celá Law, establishes two objectives for education: personal and collective training, urges to recover the importance of social inclusion in society. Education is situated not only as an academic training agent, but as a tool for the integration of citizens that allows them to participate and insert themselves into the community. For this purpose, Article 55 talks about the need to create protocols in the face of any indication of violence in the classroom.

For this reason, LOMLOE, wide and specializes in the most vulnerable students: with special educational needs, mature delay, disorders of language and communication development, attention or learning disorders, high intellectual abilities, having joined the educational system late, due to personal conditions or school history, etc.

The LOMLOE law establishes different groups of students to which its action is focused, it contemplates all the students of the educational system, as well as the students at risk of social exclusion and those with specific and educational needs. Specific Educational Support Needs (NEAE) are a set of students who have diverse needs, while special educational needs (NEE) are associated with a smaller group of NEAE who often have disabilities. This new law, in opposition to the previous one, LOMCE (2013) integrates within the NEEs (Special Educational Needs) greater variety: physical, psychic, sensory disability and behavioral disorders, communication and language.

On the other hand, with regard to adult staff education, this new law understands education in a cross-cutting way by which it believes in the right to inclusive education, therefore, in many of its actions it proposes digital education to bridge the existing digital divide.


Social cohesion and equal opportunities

The Strategic Plan for School Coexistence (Plan Estratégico de Convivencia Escolar) is aimed at preventing all kinds of harassment and school violence and is articulated in tone to seven fundamental points and includes different lines of action. It also establishes the mechanisms for evaluating the Plan. The portal of the Strategic Plan for School Coexistence, with a budget expense of 4 million euros, has a section on Training with information and tools aimed at teachers and educational centers in matters of coexistence.

This year, the Ministry of Education and VET presented the largest study of school coexistence. The report has been carried out in primary schools with more than 37,000 students, teachers, management teams, families... In this research we wanted to know the school harassment, the relationship with the teachers, the orientation of the management teams, etc.

Also aimed at the faculty is the “Relate Project” (Proyecto Relaciona), an initiative of the Institute for Women and Equal Opportunities (Instituto de la Mujer e Igualdad Oportunidades (IMIO)) funded by the different Autonomic Administrations and the European Social Fund, in collaboration with the regional administrations, to educate in values that allow us to achieve a more egalitarian society.

In addition, the Irene Programme (Programa Irene) for information, training, and prevention of sexual violence in young people and adolescents, it is part of a series of Education Projects of the Institute for Women and Equal Opportunities (Proyectos de Educación del Instituto de la Mujer e Igualdad Oportunidades), like the “Exchange Project” (Proyecto Intercambia) for equal opportunities. There are also awareness-raising and training activities in the field of education, such as the campaign Educating for Equality (Educando en Igualdad). On the other hand, the Autonomous communities implement their own plans of coexistence and attention to diversity (Planes de convivencia y atención a la diversidad).

In turn, the Ministry of Equality has created a series of teaching guides to work on the prevention of gender-based violence in classrooms for all educational stages. This is part of the State pact against gender-based violence.

Finally, there are initiatives such as the CNIIE’s Coexistence, Innovation and Diversity Project, (Proyecto Convivencia, Innovación y Diversidad), whose objective is to coordinate the actions of attention to the diversity and interculturality for coexistence, with special attention to the gypsy population, the immigration, the social inclusion and the promotion of gender equality, to contribute to the construction of a global citizenship by forming citizens capable of knowing how to coexist democratically with others, to participate in the social, labor, cultural and political life of their world, trying to improve it.

Given the autonomy left by the new organic law, some communities have decided to make some plans to solve their specific problems. The Seville Council carried out a provincial plan (2020-23) on social cohesion and equality. The objectives are to stabilize territorial imbalances, enhancing municipal coordination. In turn, it wants to consolidate social law and the Welfare State, guaranteeing municipal competences.