3.3 Skills forecasting
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Projections of the labour market development are produced and relevant information is transferred to educational institutions under the management of the MLSAF and the MESRS.
There are three information sources in Slovakia containing information on the labour market needs development:
- Sector-driven innovation - The SRI project (MLSAF, Trexima 2019 – 2022) responds to developments in the Slovak labor market, especially the needs of individual sectors of the economy affected by innovation, digitization, new technologies and also global challenges in the political and economic European and global context. Following the innovation processes, the requirements of employers of individual sectors for the appropriate qualification of the workforce, their key competencies, professional knowledge and professional skills are comprehensively identified. Sectoral sectoral strategies will thus be reflected in human resource development strategies in terms of new jobs as well as retraining processes of those not foreseen in the sectors in the future. From the aspect of the system solution of the National System of Occupations, it will be an innovation of the created, as well as the creation of new national employment standards (hereinafter referred to as "NMS"). The transfer of sector-driven innovations to the system of monitoring and anticipating labor market needs will be reflected in the system of lifelong learning, especially training for the Slovak labor market. The National System of Occupations (NSP) is defined by Act no. 5/2004 on employment services as a nationwide, unified information system describing the standard demands of the labor market for individual jobs. The NSP determines the requirements for professional skills and practical experience required to perform work activities in the labor market. Its center is the Employment Register made up of national employment standards, which describe employers' requirements for qualified employment.
- MLSAF and the company Trexima developed in 2014 and 2015 the ESF national project 'Projections for development of the labour market in the Slovak Republic' , providing information on the structure of vacancies and on projections for offer, skills and the labour market needs until 2020.
- The State Institute for Vocational Education and Training, in cooperation with 7 employers’ associations, developed a web portal http://www.potrebyovp.sk/containing an interactive map of placement of graduates on the labour market (enabling selection according to school or regions) and information on projected employers’ needs until 2019.
Another information sources on prognoses of the labour market in Slovakia:
“National Occupation Framework” (Národná sústava povolaní) was the ESF project implemented by the MLSAF in 2014 – 2015 with the aim to facilitate correlation between education and the labour market needs and between education and the labour market demand.
Non-governmental non-profit organisations:
In 2011, INEKO developed a research of employers in order to identify qualifications, which shall be demanded during next 5 years, as well as to identify reasons for the weak cooperation between schools and employers (INEKO, 2011)
Secondary schools managing authorities (regional governments, ministries) are obliged to use information on the labour market and projections of the labour market needs (Act 324/2015 amending Act on VET).
No criterion of consistency with the labour market projections has been set up within the accreditation of fields of university studies (Criteria of Accreditation/ Kritéria pre akreditáciu).
The MLSAF, in cooperation with the MESRS, publishes information on placement of the secondary schools graduates on the labour market , according to regions, secondary schools, and study fields and on regional level.
Self-governing regions elaborate regional strategies for the secondary education taking into account the labour market needs (Act on VET, § 31).
The MESRS decides on fields of study and publishes the list of such, which fell over the scope of the labour market.
This list is created in cooperation with the MLSAF, professional organisations and trade unions, using the following criteria:
- The unemployment rate of graduates;
- The total number of students studying the respective field;
- The associated need of employees;
- Sectorial concepts of VET;
- Regional education strategies etc.
Non-formal and Informal Education
There is no systemic offer of non-formal learning opportunities; there are only rare initiatives supported by various financial sources, such as:
- The ESF national project 'KOMPRAX – Competencies for practice' was implemented by IUVENTA – Slovak Youth Institute during 2011 – 2015 and, within the youth work field, targeted 8 thousand young people. The project was aimed at the development of their soft skills, important for successful entry to the labour market (communication skills, problem solving, responsibility, team work, etc.)
- Non-profit organisation EPIC from Bratislava develops competencies of young people through various projects, such as 'Job Interview Simulator' or 'Capacities of youth workers on the field of youth employment services'.
- The civic association V.I.A.C from Trstená aimed at the development of competencies of young people according to their individual needs within the project 'Domestic voluntary service for young unemployed people'.
Initiatives to disseminate information on the main skills needed
Dissemination of information on the labour marked and on its actual needs is guaranteed by the MLSAF and the MESRS.
Labour Offices create self-service information zones for pupils and students enabling access to portals containing information on the labour market (opportunities to entry the labour market, performance requested by the employers, etc.) and organize information fairs.