7.6 Mechanisms of early detection and signposting of young people facing health risks
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In Slovakia, the detection of children and young people at risk of health is incorporated into the legislative documents of various ministries.
Act no. 577/2004 Coll. the Extent of Healthcare Reimbursed on the Basis of Public Health Insurance and on Reimbursements for Healthcare Services (Zákon o rozsahu zdravotnej starostlivosti atď.)
The aim of the measures is early detection and intervention on children and youth’s health protection.
- Preventive examinations by paediatricians (general practitioners) and specialists covered by health insurance and state contributions by age (§2)
- Responsible Institution: Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic.
Social and legal protection of children and youth:
Act no. 305/2005 Coll. on Social and Legal Protection of Children and on Social Curatorship (Zákon o sociálno právnej ochrane a kuratele).
The aim of the measures is to prevent, detect and protect children and youth at risk of harassment, neglect, abuse, addictions etc.
- protection measures are e.g. family notifications, the obligation to participate in professional diagnostics, participation at treatment, educational programs etc. (§12)
- responsible institution: Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic.
The Act no. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (The School Act/Školský zákon)
The aim of the measures is to provide comprehensive care for children and youth: psychological, diagnostic, special-pedagogy and educational counselling and care in the form of various measures such as:
- establishment of the Centres of Pedagogic and Psychological Counselling and Prevention (§132),
- establishment of the Special Pedagogic and Psychological Counselling Centres for children and youth with developmental disorders (§133),
- creation of special job positions in schools: educational counsellor, school psychologist, special needs school educator, curative care pedagogue, social pedagogue, prevention coordinator and others. These employees are in charge of early detection and provide their services in cooperation with the Centres (§132, 133).
- establishment and operation of special educational facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of pupils with disturbed or threatened psycho-social development such as diagnostic centre; re-educational centre, curative-educational sanatorium.
- responsible institution: Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports of the Slovak Republic
Any resident who discovers that a child is at risk for any reason is obliged to report it to an employee in a municipal or district authority or at the section of social and legal protection and curatorship in the Offices of Labor, Social Affairs and Family.
Paediatricians and general practitioners who notice children and youth-threatening warnings at preventive examinations are to contact the Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family’s staff.
The same procedure applies to social workers (city and municipal staff) and teachers.
At the local self-governing authorities offices the departments of social affairs are established, where cases can also be reported. Offices’ employees contact the local Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (branches in each district city and in detached workplaces)
Police, when being involved contacts the Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family.
Employees of the Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (social-legal protection and curatorship sections) shall carry out case-by-case investigations and propose a procedure within the framework of Act no. 305/2005 Coll. On Social-Legal Protection and Social Curatorship.
Guidance to stakeholders
The Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic - Department of Drug Strategy Coordination and Monitoring of Drugs, the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic
created for teachers, parents, teenagers and drug prevention co-ordinators in schools
Institution for Teachers´Education and Training (The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic)
- services to teachers and employees of schools and school facilities
- accredited teachers training for example for the Prevention Coordinators - List of trainings and educational activities in school year 2017/2018 (for example health and movement, bullying, pedagogical diagnostics, coordinator of prevention of social-pathological behaviour, current problems in prevention of social-pathological behaviour, etc.
- Adolescents / teenagers
- Children and young people from poor families,
- Children and young people from marginalized Roma communities
- Children and young people with behavioural disorders
- From EU sources (structural funds - grant schemes and project support, national projects)
- From the state budget resources, the budgets of individual resorts (for example the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic)
- From the state budget assigned for Self-governing Authorities (for example for social services)
- From the resources in the non-governmental sector (for example international resources, private resources)