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There are two main strategies which identify specific target groups in the topic of the social inclusion of youth:
- National Youth Strategy 2009 – 2024 (2009) [Nemzeti Ifjúsági Stratégia 2009 – 2024 (2009)],
- National Social Inclusion Strategy 2011 – 2020 (2014) [Magyar Nemzeti Felzárkóztatási Stratégia 2011 – 2020 (2014)].
National Youth Strategy (Nemzeti Ifjúsági Stratégia) It aims to create chances for different disadvantaged groups:
- Roma children/people: improve their situation and reduce their segregation and exclusion,
- disabled children and their families: improve their situation and 'take their requirements into account and treat them more sensitively',
- disadvantaged settlements and regions: reduce their exclusion.
National Social Inclusion Strategy (Magyar Nemzeti Felzárkóztatási Stratégia) It deals with:
- child poverty,
- Roma children issues and
- the inclusion of disadvantaged regions.
(For more information, please see sub-chapter 4.3. Strategy for the Social Inclusion of Young People.)
Children and pupils in need of special support
The 12th Chapter of the Eurydice report defines the groups of children and pupils who receive special attention based on the act on public education. Children and pupils in need of special support, including:
- children/pupils with a special educational needs (for example children/pupils with physical disability),
- children/pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties,
- exceptionally gifted children/pupils and
- disadvantaged children/pupils and those with multiple disadvantages.
There are different institutions and professionals who provide services for children/pupils with special educational needs:
- institutions of the Pedagogical Assistance Service;
- separate special education institutions, conductive education institutions;
- integrated special education and conductive education institutions;
- inclusive schools and kindergartens (the schools which aim to solve the problem of anti-segregation of Roma children.);
- mobile network of special needs teachers;
- developmental educators. (Eurydice, chapter 12. Educational Support and Guidance)
The Ministry of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma) announced the implementation of the EFOP-3.1.7-16-2016-00001: Creating Opportunities in School Education (EFOP-3.1.7-16 Esélyteremtés a köznevelésben) which aims to support inclusive education, as well as the treatment of school leaving and drop-out without qualifications, and to promote equal opportunities for disadvantaged students, to increase the educational and labour market opportunities and to promote social inclusion. The project also aims at coordinating and mapping the outcomes of programs that increase disadvantaged compensation outside the school. For that measure, 4 290 000 000 Ft (about 13 312 292 euros) was allocated. The application period has already terminated but the implementation deadline is January 2021.
Social cohesion and the results of the Pisa Test
According to the Pisa Test, the performance of Hungarian students shows a negative tendency. In 2012, the results were below OECD average and compared to the 2009 survey, and they were also worse in mathematics, natural sciences and in text comprehension. (OECD 2013) Furthermore, the impact of pupils’ socioeconomic background on education outcomes is very strong. (Further information can be found in sub-chapter 6.1. General context.) (European Commission, 2016)
The 2015 Pisa Test has also produced similar results: in Hungary, social conditions of the student explain the differences in results much more than in other OECD countries, and the type of school also plays a decisive role in inequalities, as the primary school enlarges family background differences in students' labour market skills. (Némethné, 2016) The results were the same in 2018 Pisa Test: there was a bigger difference in the results of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students in reading than the OECD average (and also there were huge differences in the results of mathematics and science – but it is usual in all OECD countries).
Results of the Eurydice report from 2017 According to the Eurydice report on Citizenship Education of 2017, there are different programmes, policies aiming to enhance social cohesion:
- the School Community Service programme (iskolai közösségi szolgálat),
- Ministerial decree on the learning outcomes of teacher training.
The School Community Service programme, which means 50 hours of community work, and it is compulsory for obtaining the maturity exam. Its aim is to
- 'raise social awareness,
- improve the self-confidence and
- competences of students, with an opportunity for career guidance'.
Ministerial decree on the learning outcomes of teacher training, which requires helping to develop active citizenship among students and to teach students to be free from prejudices and to accept and respect different opinions and values. For more information on social cohesion and equal opportunities, please see sub-chapter 4.5 Initiatives Promoting Social Inclusion and Raising Awareness.