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EACEA National Policies Platform


3. Employment & Entrepreneurship

3.3 Skils forecasting

Last update: 1 July 2024
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  1. Forecasting system(s)
  2. Skills development


Forecasting system(s)

The mission of the National Institute of Labour and Human Resources Development (Ε.Ι.Α.D/NILHR), and the Labour Market Diagnosis Mechanism (LMD) which operate under the supervision of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, is to prepare studies and implementation frameworks in the areas of its competence, to collect and process statistical qualitative and quantitative labour market data, labour relations and employment policies as a National Agency.

In this framework, it conducts research to predict skills. In 2018 a report was published entitled: Forecasts for professions and skills in the Greek labour market (2018-2022). The purpose of this study is to forecast the needs of the labour market, regarding the demand and supply of professions and skills in the period 2018-2022. Labour demand includes the expansion demand component, which concerns the creation of new jobs due to the growth of the economy; and the demand for replacement, ie the need to replace workers who either change profession, retire, leave the workforce for personal reasons, or immigrate. The projections are based on the evaluation of econometric models, which predict the future behavior of the economy, taking into account the economic relations that prevailed in the past.

According to the report, there is a clear downward trend in demand for people with few skills (high school graduates and below). The largest job losses are expected mainly for primary school graduates. The demand for higher education graduates and postgraduate students will increase significantly.

In 2020, the report of Cedefop (European Center for the Development of Vocational Training) was published entitled: “Strengthening skills anticipation and matching in Greece: labour market diagnosis mechanism: a compass for skills policies and growth" which includes the results of an extensive research quantitative and qualitative, with the participation of key stakeholders (ministries, competent public bodies, social partners).

Greece participates in the European Skillsnet network for forecasting skills needs.

The Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs is responsible for introducing new fields of study and specialties, designing curricula and identifying the special skills required.

According to Law 4921/22, a Strategy for the Upgrading of the Skills of the Workforce and the Interconnection with the Labor Market (Strategy of Skills of the Workforce) was drawn up by the Public Employment Service (DYPA).

The purpose of the Workforce Skills Strategy is, in particular, the formation of a coherent framework for the diagnosis of the needs of the labor market in terms of skills, the forecasting of these needs in the near and medium-term future and the utilization and adaptation of ongoing professional training actions, in order for the workforce to acquire or upgrade skills so that it can be directly and successfully connected to the labor market. 

More specific objectives of the Workforce Skills Strategy are in particular: 

a) The effective mapping of labor market supply and demand, in terms of required skills,

b) monitoring and identifying modern professional trends and skills that meet the requirements of the national labor market with an emphasis on digital and green development, 

c) strengthening the access of all interested parties without discrimination and exclusion of continuing professional training and retraining programs, 

d) the promotion of the active participation of social partners in the design and implementation of continuing professional training programs, 

e) the systematic measurement and evaluation of the results of continuing professional training, as well as ensuring the quality assurance of the providers of ongoing professional training and the programs offered, with the aim of improving the employability of the beneficiaries and their improved connection with the needs of the labor market in skills, 

f) the evaluation and improvement of the financing models of continuing vocational training through the connection of the remuneration of vocational training providers with their performance in terms of employability of the beneficiaries, with the aim of optimizing the effective management of resources and the efficiency of the relevant interventions, achieving transparency and the simplification of procedures, 

g) the evaluation of the governance model of the Workforce Skills Strategy and its upgrade with its simplification and improved coordination and cooperation among all the involved agencies.

The Ministry of Education Religious Affairs and Sports is responsible for introducing new fields of study and specializations, designing curricula and identifying the specific skills required.

The scientific body supported by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs and its supervised bodies in issues related to primary and secondary education, post-secondary education, the transition from secondary to higher education, teacher training and the treatment of students’ Early school leaving, in order to ensure the right of all children to education, is the Institute of Educational Policy. For the fulfillment of its objectives, I.E.P. cooperates with the services of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, the Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) and in particular their pedagogical departments, research bodies, education advisory councils, secondary education teachers' unions, institutions, domestic and foreign study and research organizations, as well as other public or private sector bodies with a relevant mission or the members of the aforementioned bodies


Skills development

Among the challenges that a young person has to face is the acquisition of those skills that will help him to manage independently his later life by making positive and healthy choices. Education plays a key role in achieving this goal, in all its three dimensions: formal, non-formal and informal learning.

The National Recovery and Resilience Plan, related to training and lifelong learning, includes the flagship reform of the management of training/retraining programs, based on a reward system that provides incentives for high quality and efficient training, which promotes the adoption of good practices, resulting in systematic improvement of the performance of the training offered and the labour market.

The framework applies to training/retraining programs of the entire workforce and emphasizes the link between business needs and the training programs provided for skills of high demand in the labour market, in particular skills necessary for green transition and digital transformation. Due to the increase of employment and productivity and as a result of its planning, the Axis will also alleviate inequalities, poverty and the risk of economic and social exclusion. Policies are complemented by those for the next generation, children and young people, such as education and skills.

The Axis: Enhancing education and lifelong learning and modernizing vocational education and training aims to increase long-term employment and productivity by strengthening human capital. For this reason, the Axis includes reforms at all levels of the education system, concerning the modernization of the skills development system, the integration of new methodologies and digital tools, the evaluation of the training system, the autonomy of the education system, in combination with its relevance to the modern needs of the labour market and the digital age, but also its extroversion towards the local and international community and economy.

Regarding formal education, the Axis includes the implementation of an important reform for vocational education and training, with the main objectives of upgrading the quality of the studies provided and the modernization of curricula in areas and skills of modern economy. As part of this reform, which aims to increase the attractiveness and effectiveness of vocational education and training for young people, the Axis includes a visionary review of the apprenticeship and vocational training system for the unemployed.

The main pillars are the revision of the curricula with the basic criterion of the correlation of the professional curricula with the labour market, the evaluation of the training system and the integration of new specialties that respond to the changes of modern economy, such as digital, green or blue specialties. The Axis also includes a major reform of the system to develop the skills of the country's workforce through the definition of the governance model and the review of the content and implementation of training programs, the acquisition of new skills or the upgrading of the existing skills offered.

As part of the reform, the evaluation mechanism of education and training benefits is reviewed, through a system oriented towards the results and measurable benefits of the offered education. The benefits of the reforms will be enhanced and accelerated by investments in digital systems, laboratory equipment for VET (Vocational education and training) and DYPA training units as well as the upgrading of human resources skills.