4.6 Access to quality services
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In relation to access to housing, in Spain there has been specific support for young people, such as the Basic Emancipation Income (Renta Básica de Emancipación) implemented by the Ministry of Transport, Mobility and Urban Agenda, but it was suspended and replaced in 2012.
In its place, there is currently the Housing Assistance Programme (Programa de ayudas al alquiler de vivienda), aimed at facilitating access and permanence in rental housing to sectors of the population with limited economic means, among them young people in a situation of vulnerability. Access to said aid is granted to individuals who are over 18 years old, covering up to 40% of the annual rent for 12 months, extendable for successive periods of 12 months, until the end of the plan. In order to receive the aid, it is also required that the rent of the house equals to or is below 600 euros per month. For their part, the Autonomous Regions establish their own housing aid schemes.
Plan Estatal de vivienda (2018-2021)
Starting in 2018, the central government has created the Action Plan on Housing (2018-2021), which will be developed by the different Autonomous RegionsWithin this plan there is a housing program to help young people up to 35 years rent or purchase a house. The amount of this rental aid will be up to 50% of the monthly rent, for rentals between 600 and 900 € / month, for a maximum of 3 years. The aid for the acquisition of housing will be up to €10,800 with the limit of 20% of the purchase price. The requirements are:
- Young people up to 35 years old.
- Income less than ~22,365 Euros per year.
- For rents equal to or less than € 600 / month (up to € 900 in justified cases).
- That the house is the habitual and permanent residence during the period of support.
- Not already owning a house.
Catalogue of reference of social services:
The Catalogue of reference of social services (Catálogo de Referencia de Servicios Sociales) is a reference guide developed by the Spanish State through the Ministry of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda (Ministerio de Derechos Sociales y Agenda 2030), which aims to guarantee access to social services for all the citizens of Spain. It is a guide for the general population, but in its catalogue of services we find a section of social services specialized in assisting young people at risk of social exclusion.
Information, orientation, counselling and diagnostic services are provided through direct or derivative contact. For these actions, the Ministry of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda has developed a programme of action that has different services, including the guardianship of minors, whose objective is to guarantee the minor a normalised context for his/her personal development. It also promotes compliance with judicial measures for children under 18 and over 14 years old, through the services of implementing measures imposed by juvenile judges on offenders, such as socio-educational tasks or reintegration programmes.
Telephone services against bullying
This a telephone number created by the former Ministry of Education and Vocational Training to combat bullying. It was launched on 1 November 2016 and is intended primarily for students, although parents, guardians, teachers, management teams and the staff of educational centres will also be assisted.
The calls are answered by qualified university personnel in the field of psychology, but are also part of the larger care team formed also by social workers, lawyers and sociologists, who will provide the care that the child needs. Calls are anonymous, confidential and free. It operates every day of the year, 24 hours a day.
Campaign “Cut in time. Abuse does not arrive suddenly”
“Cut in time. Abuse does not arrive suddenly” (Corta a tiempo. El maltrato no llega de repente) is an awareness campaign against gender-based abuse, launched in 2017 by the Ministry of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda. Its target is young people by addressing the early detection and recognition of abusive action towards women, such as controlling behaviour, isolation, disrespect and physical abuse, in order to prevent them and avoiding normalization and justification.
The Government of Spain had already initiated similar campaings in recent years to tackle this problem, for example, the “Hay Salida Campaign” in 2015 and 2012, as well as other efforts in the same direction, such as the introduction in 1997 of the fully state-funded women’s helpline (016).
2013-2016 Action Plan on Drugs
The 2013-2016 Action Plan on Drugs (Plan de acción sobre drogas 2013-2016) is an action plan linked to proposals that are promoted in the same direction as the European level. Its goal is the prevention of drug use, and the assistance and social reintegration of addicted people. Despite being a plan that is not entirely aimed at young people, it has specific actions designed for them, such as the Prevention Plan for drug addiction and addiction in the hotel sector or the Prevention Plan for retail traffic in school and leisure areas.
2018-2020 Action Plan on Addictions
The Action Plan on Addictions 2018-2020 (Plan de acción sobre adicciones 2018-2020) defines the action which will take place from 2018 to 2020 to tackle the problem of addictions, which is a concept broader than “regular” drugs, as it also includes other problems such as ludopathy and addictive use of internet. Its end goal is the creation of a more healthy, informed and save society, and will take 36 actions to fulfil its three main goals: 1) To delay the consumption of drugs and the access to potentially addictive behaviour; 2) To reduce this consumption and behaviour; and 3) To diminish the damage associated to them. Although the plan is not focused entirely on youngsters, some of the measures are indeed directed to young people and legal minors, especially the actions taken concerning prevention, protection and information, as they as regarded as particularly vulnerable.
In terms of monitoring and evaluation, certain activities have been established to follow the success of the plan, as well as indicators related to those organized actions.
Furthermore, in 2017, after studying the results of the first Action Plan on Drugs (2013-2016), the same Commission in charge of the Plan and the Minister Council approved the National Strategy on Drugs 2017-2024 with the objective of reducing and preventing drug abuse in Spain by the year 2024.
INJUVE-MicroBank microcredit program for young entrepreneurs:
The purpose of the INJUVE-MicroBank Programme (Programa INJUVE-Microbank) is to finance projects for entrepreneurs from 16 to 35 years old to start a business or who have started one in a period of less than three years previously, without the need for guarantees. The loan offers a maximum of 95% of the total cost of the project, a maximum loan amount of 25000 Euros, a repayment term of six years and a fixed interest rate of 6.25% over the life of the loan. It has no commissions.The microcredit programme is managed by the autonomous communities that agree to their adherence to the conventiont.
Some of the measures for accessing services have defined systems for quality control. This is the case of the Social Services Reference Catalogue (Catálogo de referencia de servicios sociales) and the 2013-2016 Action Plan on Drugs (Plan de acción sobre drogas 2013-2016).
In the case of the Social Services Reference Catalogue (Catálogo de referencia de servicios sociales), quality control is practiced by the National Institute for Evaluation of Public Policies (Instituto para la Evaluación de Políticas Públicas), which is currently a subdirectorate of the Secretary of State for Territorial Policy and Public Function (Secretaria de Estado de Política Territorial y Función Pública). In addition, adherence to the European Quality Framework has been carried out, which establishes guidelines such as the availability of services, accessibility, continuity, that are oriented to good results and are comprehensive, affordable and people-centred.
Regarding the action plans on drugs and the National Strategy, each programme is assigned a rating system for assessment in each Autonomous Community, in addition to a defined monitoring system for each of the actions. Expert questionnaires have been developed for the design of the plan as a measure for quality control. In the case of sections for young people, the Youth Institute (INJUVE) has been the entity in charge of answering the questionnaires. It seeks to detect priority actions for the prevention and reduction of risks and damages associated with drug use by young people.