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The recognition gathered in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), developed in 1966 and incorporated in Spain in 1977, placed special emphasis on the right to culture, by requiring the signatory States to extend cultural participation to all citizens. The profile of those who participate in culture the most is usually linked to those with high education and to the youth. Public authorities are required to promote effectively and efficiently the social, political, economic and cultural conditions that allow young people to develop fully, including granting access to participation in culture.
Culture Plan 2020
The Culture Plan 2020 (El Plan Cultura 2020), developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte) in March 2017, is the successor of the General Strategic Plan 2012-2015 (Plan Estratégico General 2012-2015) and it is an instrument whose main objective is to make culture a State policy in a period of three years, from 2017 to 2020. The document details the general objectives, strategies, and projects aimed at involving citizens in cultural activities.
Objectives and strategies
- To promote a quality cultural offer. Aims at promoting quality projects by modernising the equipment and technology in cultural management. This strategy aims at: improving the access to financing of cultural industries, applying better legal criteria to adequately value the copyrights; modernising cultural assets, protecting historical heritage and promoting the allocation of additional human and technological resources; reforming the National institute of Performing Arts and Music (Instituto Nacional de las Artes Escénicas y de la Música [INAEM]) in charge of national policies related to the performing arts; strengthening public policies in support of the performing arts and music sectors with special attention to the most vulnerable areas; stimulating the technological development and diffusion of the Spanish audiovisual sector; supporting the dynamic role of the Spanish film library (Filmoteca Española); optimising human and material resources of the Museo del Prado and to clearly sketch its lines of work; promoting the critical knowledge of the public about modern and contemporary art, as well as reinforcing human and material resources of the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía; and facilitating the access to Spanish bibliographic and documentary heritage.
- To update the legal framework for the protection of culture. The intention is to redefine the regulatory scope according to the ever-changing sociocultural reality. The strategies are: to improve the taxation of culture and to reinforce the legal framework, as well as the resources and actions for the protection of intellectual property rights; to adopt new legal forms for the management of cultural heritage and artistic creation; to attract and facilitate filming in Spain; to promote transparent funding for cinema; to update the legal framework of the legal repository of publications.
- To promote social partnership for culture. The strategies are: to establish a joint commitment between civil society and public administrations; to make culture a decentralized political and social priority; to revitalize and support cultural patronage; to launch awareness-raising actions on the legal supply of cultural content and the defence of intellectual property; to reach an agreement with cultural agents to encourage reading; to reinforce cultural cooperation with the Autonomous Communities; to promote new tools for the protection of and access to cultural heritage; to preserve and disseminate musical and choreographic heritage; to contribute to education and social inclusion through the performing arts; to create tools for visibility, diagnostics and monitoring of the performing arts; to promote an interest in cinematography with education in Spain; and to foster cultural patronage.
- Extending Spanish culture abroad. This objective requires the following actions: promoting the Spanish multicultural wealth abroad, with the help of public and private agents; promoting the Spanish offer of cultural tourism; completing the implementation of the Collective rights management directive; establishing inter-institutional instruments on the internalisation of culture; strengthening the international cooperation to make the richness of cultural heritage more visible; promoting collaboration in cultural heritage protection and research; promoting the internalization of the Spanish performing arts and music; consolidating the diffusion of Spanish cinema in the world; increasing the internalization of Spanish film archives; converting the National Library of Spain (Biblioteca Nacional de España) into a centre of reference in international Hispanism.
- Promoting creative activity for cultural creation and innovation in a stable medium and with greater visibility for its agents. Modernising the award system of the Ministry of Culture and Sport. Promoting the participation of Spanish cultural professionals in the European Union's financing instruments for cultural industries and to support the international mobility of artists and cultural professionals.
One of the main aspects of the Culture Plan 2020 is to organize and promote cooperation among the General Administration of the State, the Autonomous Regions, Autonomous Cities, Ministries, institutions and other agents who play a role in creating the social, political and legal context that guarantees access to culture, artistic creation, protection of cultural heritage and the development of cultural industries with freedom.
The Culture Plan 2020 is disaggregated into the Annual Operative Plans, in which each plan gathers the projects in execution, the activities involved, the results or concrete effects expected and the indicators or factors that measure the evolution and results of each project. The authorities responsible for each project included in the strategy are listed in the Annual Operative Plans, and they shall elaborate a report each year. The objective of this report is to supervise each Operative Plan and to achieve an integrated information depository. All the reports will follow the transparency principle of public availability.
Projects for young people within the Culture Plan 2020
Opening of a space in the web of the film library (Filmoteca Española) for young people.
To make the film industry activities known to the younger audience.
Establishment of a project of investment with quotas for audiovisual production on new platforms.
To involve film and audiovisual production in new platforms, including special measures for young people and new filmmakers.
Implementation, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, Vocational Training, an awareness plan for the school children regarding the need to respect intellectual property in the environment of new technologies.
To reduce the infringement of Intellectual Property by younger segments of the population.
Development of the program "Tobacco Quarry" (“Tabacalera Cantera”)
To facilitate the professionalisation of young people.
Source: The 2020 Culture Plan. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport 2019.
The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport carried out strategic planning with the aim of fulfilling the constitutional mandate to guarantee access to culture during the years 2012-2015. The main objectives of the General Strategic Plan 2012-2015 vary from the Culture Plan 2020. In both pland, the modification of the Law of Cultural Patronage and the international promotion of Spain’s brand through culture is highlighted. The new plan is more refined with its objectives for the digitalisation of culture.
Spanish cultural policies, similarly to the ones of other European countries, are influenced by the globalisation process and growing international interdependence. Undoubtedly, the first half of the twentieth century meant an advance in the definition of public cultural goods and services, recovering collective memory and heritage by setting the foundations for the structural guidelines of the institutionalised culture. Later changes were made leading to an expansion of cultural industries’ markets and to the information society and digitalization. However, due to Francoism, the introduction of these changes suffered delays. During the democratic period (from 1978) there has not been much resonance of political proposals for the pact on culture as national policy. The most recent proposal is the one from March 2019 made by the Socialist Party (PSOE) offering a national pact to preserve and develop culture.