7.3 Sport, youth fitness and physical activity
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The Recovery, Transformation and Resilience Plan is Spain's strategy for channeling the funds allocated by Europe to repair the damage caused by the Covid-19 crisis and build a more sustainable future. One of its lines of action is to promote the sports sector (Component 26) through various modernization and revitalization actions for which it has funding of 300 million euros. Its main purpose is to minimize the impact that COVID-19 has had on the sector and, therefore, on the country's economy and quality of life, for which it has funding of 300 million euros:
- New sports law
- Law on sports professions
- National strategy for the promotion of sport against sedentary lifestyles and physical inactivity.
- Promotion of Sport - Plan for the Ecological Transition of sports facilities.
- Promotion of Sport - Social Plan for the Sport Sector, especially aimed at reducing gender inequality.
Within this framework, the Supreme Sports Council is in the process of promoting modernization and innovation in all areas related to the Spanish sports system through the 2030 Support Plan for Grassroots Sports (ADB 2030). Its objective is to increase the number of people who practice sports and to generate optimal conditions for the detection of sports talents and their comprehensive training, both in sports and academics. As a novelty, compared to the ABD 2020, it seeks to influence the general population, promoting the practice of physical activity and sport as a fundamental element of a healthy lifestyle throughout life.
The ABD 2030 projects are developed around three major programs, two of them specifically aimed at the young population:
- Support for School Sport (ADE).
- Support for University Sports (ADU).
- Promotion of physical activity and the fight against sedentary lifestyles (ABD+).
Regarding the implementation of the Plan, Law 22/2021, of December 28, of the General State Budget for the year 2022, includes the consideration of this Plan as an event of public interest, including it in the tax regime for non-profit entities and tax incentives for patronage, which grants a series of tax benefits to individuals and companies that promote it.
In Spain, the legislative framework that governs and guides the Spanish educational system is formed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the laws that develop the principles and rights established therein: Organic Law 1978/8, regulating the right to education, Organic Law 1985/8 on Qualifications and Vocational Training modified by Organic Law 5/2002, of June 19, on Qualifications and Vocational Training, and Organic Law 1985/5 on Education, modified by Organic Law 3/2020, of 29 December, which amends Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education (LOMLOE). Physical education in schools is compulsory and its teaching as a subject is regulated by these laws and is usually taught between two and three hours a week.
In this Law, Physical Education acquires a broader character than that which was usual in previous laws by promoting Physical Education not only as a subject but also different activities such as healthy eating, or the daily practice of sports, for example, in supplementary activities linked to movement that can be developed during recess time, in the classroom or on the way between home and school and extracurricular activities. In addition, it stresses the importance of carrying out this type of activities in open spaces and outdoors and extends Physical Education from primary education to Vocational Training, whereas previous laws made it compulsory from the 1st year of Bachillerato (Bachillerato is part of post-compulsory secondary education in Spain).
Some of these activities may include:
Perseus program (Programa Perseo), promotion of physical activity during break time and the lunch break:
The Perseus program and promoted by the Spanish Agency of Food Security and Nutrition of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, is a guide directed at the school managers, teachers, fathers and mothers, and technicians and those responsible for the regional administrations that aim to orient the development of physical and healthy activity of the students. One of its chapters is dedicated to the promotion of physical activity in the break time and lunch break.
The break time, as an integral part of the school day, influences the quality of school work and must be considered as a space for intellectual rest and physical movement, promoting motor activity, especially in the age of primary education. Among other recommendations the programme understands that recess must be at least 20 minutes; which should not replace Physical Education classes; that it is not a time of punishment or to do homework; whereas there is a need for safe and adequate facilities for all schoolchildren to be able to perform physical activity at the same time; and that adequate equipment is necessary to facilitate the practice of physical activity.
In addition, the program proposes physical activity during lunchtime, both for those at
school during that time, and for those who are elsewhere before the school day. It also proposes organizing extracurricular activities in that time, which in Spain is usually between an hour and a half and two hours.
Resources for professionals for the promotion of physical activity in schools
GIVE ME 10 (DAME 10) (Active Breaks Through Exercise):
Give Me 10 is a didactic material that proposes a series of physical activities of between a duration of 5 and 10 minutes designed to develop in the classroom, during school hours, by the teacher or specialist with no specific material, with the objective to reduce the time in sedentary attitude during the school day. They are physical activities with which at the same time they work curricular contents of all the areas of knowledge from 2nd cycle of infant education until the last year of primary school and first year of secondary school. The programme consists of 87 activities and can be given when the teacher considers it appropriate, depending on the content they are working on, the time of day or the state of attention of the students.
The Spanish government, through the Consejo Superior de Deportes (CSD), establishes partnerships for the promotion of sport and physical activity with associations, federations and foundations. Among the main ones are the Young Sport Foundation, the International School Sport Federation. It also maintains sports cooperation relations with national and international organizations. Some examples of collaboration in the field of youth are:
- Ministry of Education, Vocational Training, Youth and Sports of Andorra.
- Ministry of Youth and Sports of Algeria.
- Ministry of Health, Youth and Sport of France
- Ministry of Youth and Sports of Gabon
- Ministry of Youth, Sports and Civic Action of Haiti
- Ibero-American sports organizations to enable athletes from these countries to improve their performance and learn new training techniques. It also cooperates with other national governmental organizations.
The Spanish State grants the Council the power to provide aid and subsidies to Sports Federations and other Sporting Entities and Associations, regulated in article 8 of Law 10/1990, 15th of October, regarding Sport.