3.8 Development of entrepreneurship competence
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Research on the situation and opinions of youth in Spain shows a low level of motivation for entrepreneurship among Spanish youth (Youth Strategy 2020). This is the reason why the National Plan for the Implementation of the Youth Guarantee (Plan Nacional de Implantación de la Garantía Juvenil en España), among other measures to improve employability, introduces entrepreneurship into training programmes for employment.
Concerning education for entrepreneurship, there is no national strategy as such, it has been developed at sub-national level, with the Autonomous Regions proving to be very active.
The regulations framework for the development of entrepreneurship as attaining competence is established by the Organic Law for Education 2/2006 (Ley Orgánica de Educación 2/2006) and the amendments to the same established in the Organic Law for Quality Improvement of Education (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa 8/2013 LOMCE) introducing the entrepreneurial sense of initiative, along with the development of contents related to entrepreneurship in the training curriculum and syllabus.
The study Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe 2016 of the European Network Eurydice offers detailed information about the state of education for entrepreneurship in each country, including data related to Spain. The report is based on information supplied by national units: in the case of Spain, the Spanish Network on Information of Education, Red Española de Información sobre Educación (Eurydice España – REDIE).
Although the LOMCE establishes the framework and general orientation, education is a regional competence, thus making the Autonomous Regions in charge of introducing subjects into the training curriculum, including education for entrepreneurship. The report ‘Entrepreneurship Education in the Spanish education system, 2015’ (‘La educación para el emprendimientoen el sistema educativo español. Año 2015’) drawn up by the Red Española de Información sobre Educación (Eurydice España – REDIE) presents a detailed analysis of the introduction of entrepreneurship education in the training curricula of the Autonomous Regions.
For the introduction and development of entrepreneurship as a learning subject, there are agreements of the Administration which introduce entrepreneurship into the curricula of expert institutions in the matter. Such is the case of the Programa YPD (Young Potential Development) and the Proyecto Think Big Jóvenes de la Fundación Telefónica.
It is very interesting for a comparative approach the publication Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe. This report was published in February 2016. It has detailed information on strategies, curricula and learning outcomes, and also covers new themes such as funding schemes and teacher education. The information comes from 33 countries, all members of the Eurydice Network.
The Law on support of the Entrepreneurship and its Internationalisation 14/2013 (Ley 14/2013), recognises the ‘mini-company’ or students company (Miniempresa o empresa de estudiantes) as a pedagogical tool and establishes its features. The report ‘Entrepreneurship Education in the Spanish education system, 2015’ compiles education activities and programmes for entrepreneurship using alternative approaches.
In order to encourage social entrepreneurship amongst youth, there are initiatives such as the Youth Social Entrepreneurship Labs (Laboratorios de emprendimiento social juvenil), organised by the National Network for Social Entrepreneurship (Red CreActiva, Red estatal para el emprendimiento social) with the aim of encouraging the development of entrepreneurial skills for the benefit of the community.
In order to recognise skills gained through volunteering, the Recognition Project (Proyecto Reconoce) has the main purpose of organising a national network of organisations promoting the recognition of skills and abilities gained through volunteering action aiming at the improvement of youth employability. The Project relies on collaboration with the Spanish Youth Institute.
When recognising entrepreneurship skills, a tool of recognition of learning in both non-formal and informal, such as EU Youth pass, is used. Another tool is the European Skills Passport, as well as Europass, which is useful for setting up an electronic portfolio of qualifications and skills.
Policies and initiatives of support for the development of professional skills of teachers concerning education for entrepreneurship are specifically developed within the scope of the CCAA.
The report Entrepreneurship Education in the Spanish education system, 2015 presents a detailed account of measures related to basic training and the ongoing training of teachers with a list of courses addressed to teachers: awareness-raising events, online follow-up of the implementation processes within the classroom, guidelines for the implementation of education for entrepreneurship, development of teaching materials for implementation, teacher networks for the exchange of ideas and good practice in education for entrepreneurship or support from the education centres.