3.3 Skills forecasting
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'In Hungary, there is no coordinated skills anticipation system at the national level. The governance of the skills anticipation mainly rests with the Ministry of Finance (Pénzügyminisztérium) [between 2010 and 2018 Ministry for National Economy (Nemzetgazdasági Minisztérium)], while the Ministry for Innovation and Technology (Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium) is responsible for skills anticipation related to higher education. The national and county levels of the Chambers of Commerce and Industry (HCCI and CCIs respectively) have an important role in the supply and analysis of skills anticipation data, as does the Hungarian PES [National Employment Service (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat)].' (Cedefop, 2017)
The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara)
The role of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara) is worth emphasizing; this institution regularly checks the different international reports and the national developments (Spring 2021 Economic Forecast) and its Institute for Economic and Enterprise Research conducts research about short term labour market prognosis every year commissioned by the Ministry. The Chamber has good governmental connections and often takes a position ('Kevés a szakmunkás, sok a gimnazista') on the links between education and the labour market, and the desirable directions. It plays an important role in the organization and quality assurance of the dual training. It must be noted that the forecasting reports of the Ministry of Finance mention young workers rarely.
The Development and Training Committees
'Coordination of activities is more apparent at the county level where the Development and Training Committees are the main organisations responsible for bringing together stakeholders to discuss issues relating to the demand for, and supply of, skills. They bring together employer representatives (via the CCIs) and regional policymakers. The Committees are coordinated by the Ministry of Finance. As noted above, the influence of Development and Training Committees has been reduced since 2015 with the Ministry of Finance taking a more of a leading role in making decisions about skills supply.' (Cedefop, 2017)
'The framework and databank for labour market forecasts could be considered the most comprehensive tool for skills anticipation in Hungary, as it offers an indication of labour demand and supply over medium-term. Most of the data, however, have not been updated since the launch of the databank in 2013, when it included data for 2010.
Nevertheless the Fiscal Council runs a short-term labour market forecast developed by the Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (IE CERS HAS) [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia], which is based on a restricted version of the above-mentioned framework and databank.
Surveys of the demand for and supply of students leaving vocational education and tracking surveys of higher education graduates are also important sources of skills intelligence. It should be noted that the use of linked survey and administrative data relating to the career progression of higher education graduates represents a relatively advanced means of skills anticipation in Hungary.' (Cedefop, 2017)
The indications from forecasting systems are mostly used for calibrating formal educational policies (in terms of non-formal education, the policy still focuses more on creating a coherent framework and recognition instead of explicit content). In terms of that, there is a higher and higher emphasis put on the importance and relevance of VET within educational and economic policy in recent years.
'The Act on Vocational Education (2011, amended in 2015) restructured the system of VET. County-level Development and Training Committees (Megyei Fejlesztési és Képzési Bizottságok, CDTCs) have been set up to coordinate the provision of VET according to the labour market needs projected at the county level. The county-level CCIs lead these committees.' (Cedefop, 2017)
Changes in vocational training system in the school year 2020/2021
In 2020, the Hungarian Government changed the system of vocational schools [1168/2019. (III. 28.) Korm. határozat - 'Szakképzés 4.0']. There are two main types of vocational schools: one of them starts with 2 years general education and continues with 3 years professional education and the students could obtain the maturity exam and a technical certificate together at the end of the 5th year. The other type of school consists of 1 year general education and in 10 - 11th grades the students could participate in dual training. After the general year grades the students have to take a basic exam. (For more information about the new vocational school system, please see sub-chapter 6.1. General Context and Eurydice, sub-chapter National reforms in vocational education and training and adult learning)
Skills development in the new 'Vocational Training 4.0' Strategy
According to the 'Vocational Training 4.0' Strategy ('Szakképzés 4.0' stratégia), adopted in 2019, there is a strong emphasis on the new competencies, required by the changing labour market. The most important is to have a complex problem solving skill but the role of critical thinking and creativity is also increasing. Also, there are new competencies' requirements in the labour market as the emotional intelligence and the cognitive flexibility. The main aim of the Strategy is to create a vocational education system that supplies the needs of the modern labour market. (For more information about the new vocational school system, please see sub-chapter 6.1. General Context)
The dual education was introduced in higher education
In line with the policy emphasis on VET, in 2015, the dual education was introduced in higher education.
'The existing types of higher education institutions — colleges and universities — were complemented by two new sub-structures. The first is the 'university of applied sciences', which offers at least two degree programmes in dual form. Unlike a university, a university of applied sciences is not required to offer doctoral programmes. The other new sub-structure is the 'community-based higher education centre' where an existing higher education institution delivers a tertiary programme in small settlements.' (Education and Training Monitor 2016 Hungary)
Information campaigns on VET programmes
Information campaigns on VET programmes are launched. The following three types of campaigns exist in Hungary:
- 'The Night of Professions' ('Szakmák Éjszakája'),
- 'Do your Profession!' ('SzakMÁzz!'),
- 'European VET Week' ('Európai Szakképzési Hét').
'The Night of Professions' ('Szakmák Éjszakája') is an evening and night event organized at national level, each spring since 2016, during which general public, especially students and parents can enter VET Centres and VET schools and see in practice the different professions. Special, profession-related activities and projects are shown as well as entertainment related to the VET offer.
'Do your Profession!' ('SzakMÁzz!') is an exhibition for career guidance in VET professions organized once a year and providing different activities and demonstrations of the professions.
'European VET Week' – ('Európai Szakképzési Hét') was launched by the European Commission, has been for the first time organized in late 2016 and was a great success at European level for Hungary: the country has come out as second on the list of the number of national events registered for the Week.
Centre for Innovative Education Support
The Centre for Innovative Education Support (Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ) also plays an important role in disseminating information on the VET programmes. They provide information about all of the VET professions with
- detailed descriptions,
- competencies' requirements,
- description on the skills and knowledge that could be acquired,
- the locations, the institutions and their contact information where the training is available.
They also created a 'Digital Direction Locator' ('Digitális Útkereső') which is a questionnaire that can help the students to find the profession that fits best to their skills and interest. The students also find information on the website about the possibilities of dual professional training ('duális szakmai oktatás').