3.3 Skills forecasting
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'At the national and county level, the Hungarian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (HCCI), the Institute for Economic and Enterprise Research and the Hungarian Central Statistical Office produce and publish skills anticipation data. HCCIs lead the county-level Development and Training Committees, which are the main organisations for the coordination of skills anticipation at that administrative level. The Committees review the evidence on the demand for, and supply of, skills, including information provided by the CCIs.' (Cedefop, 2022)
The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The role of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara) is worth emphasizing; this institution regularly checks the different international reports and the national developments (Spring 2021 Economic Forecast) and its Institute for Economic and Enterprise Research conducts research about short term labour market prognosis every year commissioned by the Ministry. The Chamber has good governmental connections and often takes a position on the links between education and the labour market, and the desirable directions. It plays an important role in the organization and quality assurance of the dual training. It must be noted that the forecasting reports of the Ministry of Finance mention young workers rarely (MTI, 2016).
The Development and Training Committees
'The primary aim of skills anticipation in Hungary is to match skills supply to labour demand, especially at the county level where the Development and Training Committees (Megyei Fejlesztési és Képzési Bizottságok, CDTC) have a responsibility for ensuring that education and training supply meet demand in the labour market. The 19 CDTCs hold a key position in ensuring information and feedback loops are in place regarding the establishment and promotion of a demand-driven VET system and the coordination of VET development at national level.' (Cedefop, 2022)
Skills intelligence in higher education
In Hungary, there is a skills intelligence system, called Integrated Higher Education Graduate Tracking Database (Diplomás Pályakövető Rendszer) in the higher education which aim is to provide skills intelligence through matching education and employment data. The system collects data from
- an online questionnaire, conducted each year, on the current career information of the students graduated in recent years,
- the database of the National Tax and Customs Administration, and
- the administrative data of the Hungarian PES [National Employment Service (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat)].
This database is the most useful for those who are about entering higher education and has to decide on the type of studies to be chosen. They are able to see a list of career path that could be acquired through various studies (Cedefop, 2022).
The indications from forecasting systems are mostly used for calibrating formal educational policies (in terms of non-formal education, the policy still focuses more on creating a coherent framework and recognition instead of explicit content). In terms of that, there is a higher and higher emphasis put on the importance and relevance of VET within educational and economic policy in recent years.
Changes in vocational training system in the school year 2020/2021
In 2020, the Hungarian Government changed the system of vocational schools [1168/2019. (III. 28.) Korm. határozat - 'Szakképzés 4.0']. There are two main types of vocational schools: one of them starts with 2 years general education and continues with 3 years professional education and the students could obtain the maturity exam and a technical certificate together at the end of the 5th year. The other type of school consists of 1 year general education and in 10 - 11th grades the students could participate in dual training. After the general year grades the students have to take a basic exam. (For more information about the new vocational school system, please see sub-chapter 6.1. General Context and Eurydice, sub-chapter 6.4 Organisation of vocational secondary education)
Skills development in the new 'Vocational Training 4.0' Strategy
According to the 'Vocational Training 4.0' Strategy ('Szakképzés 4.0' stratégia), adopted in 2019, there is a strong emphasis on the new competencies, required by the changing labour market. The most important thing is to have a complex problem solving skill but the role of critical thinking and creativity is also increasing. Also, there are new competencies' requirements in the labour market such as emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility. The main aim of the Strategy is to create a vocational education system that supplies the needs of the modern labour market. (For more information about the new vocational school system, please see sub-chapter 6.1. General Context)
Information campaigns on VET programmes
Information campaigns on VET programmes are launched. The following three types of campaigns exist in Hungary:
- 'The Night of Professions' ('Szakmák Éjszakája'),
- 'Do your Profession!' ('SzakMÁzz!'),
- 'European VET Week' ('Európai Szakképzési Hét').
'The Night of Professions' is an evening and night event organised at national level, each spring since 2016, during which general public, especially students and parents can enter VET centres and VET schools and see in practice the different professions. Special, profession-related activities and projects are shown as well as entertainment related to the VET offer.
'Do your Profession!' is an exhibition for career guidance in VET professions organised once a year and providing different activities and demonstrations of the professions.
'European VET Week' was launched by the European Commission, has been for the first time organised in late 2016 and was a great success at European level for Hungary: the country has come out as second on the list of the number of national events registered for the Week.
Centre for Innovative Education Support
The Centre for Innovative Education Support (Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ) also plays an important role in disseminating information on the VET programmes. They provide information about all of the VET professions with
- detailed descriptions,
- competencies' requirements,
- description on the skills and knowledge that could be acquired,
- the locations, the institutions and their contact information where the training is available.
They also created a 'Digital Profession Advisor' (Digitális SzakmaAjánló) which is a questionnaire that can help the students to find the profession that fits best to their skills and interest. The students also find information on the website about the possibilities of dual professional training (Innovatív Képzéstámogató Központ, Duális szakmai oktatás).