3.8 Development of entrepreneurship competence
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The role of the National Youth Strategy in development of entrepreneurship competence
There is no specific governmental strategy regarding the development of entrepreneurship competence, but the topic itself is addressed in various strategical documents. The role of National Youth Strategy 2009-2024 [(Nemzeti Ifjúsági Stratégia 2009-2024 (referred hereinafter to as NYS)] lists the following objectives under the subheading of 'Acquiring work experience, employment' in the chapter about self-sufficiency:
- 'To facilitate the operation and maintenance of enterprises started by young people.'
- 'To promote the acquisition of economic, financial and labour market knowledge and experience in public education.'
The most recent action plan [1535/2016. (X. 13.) Korm. határozat] of the Youth Strategy aimed to foster youth entrepreneurship via direct subsidies and education.
Strategy on Small and Medium-sized Enterprise
The Strategy on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (Kis- és középvállalkozások stratégiája 2014-2020, referred hereinafter to as SMEs) adopted by the Government for the years 2014-2020 gives priority to the development of the entrepreneurs' and prospective entrepreneurs' financial consciousness, which contributes directly to their competitiveness. The pillar of the strategy that is most relevant for young people is the strengthening of the role of financial knowledge in formal education and in trainings for entrepreneurs.
European Money Week
'support consumers from an early age who have the financial knowledge and hold their fate in their hands, and help awareness-raising on financial consciousness. [The organisers and the audience] can meet through several channels with the series of events of the European Money Week, such as professional events; special events in schools, and playful competitions.
The Hungarian Banking Association (Magyar Bankszövetség) is the main organiser of the programme, in cooperation with Money Compass Foundation (Pénziránytű Alapítvány). In 2017, the project owner, the Ministry of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma), integrated the programme into the academic school year. Other ministries and civil organisations support the implementation of the programme:
- Ministry of Finance (Pénzügyminisztérium),
- Ministry for Innovation and Technology (Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium),
- Junior Achievement Foundation (Junior Achievement Alapítvány).
In the 2019/2020 school year the number of students participating in the European Money Week increased: 217 thousand students from 1 203 schools registered and 1 725 teachers gave lessons to the students. 901 financial and entrepreneurial volunteers were helped in the lessons.
'Entrepreneurship education is cross-curricular for ISCED 1-3 including school-based Initial Vocational Education and Training.
It is represented in a relatively complex way in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum and respective framework curricula. It is a key competence that should be addressed in all subject areas. The National Core Curriculum also defines 12 cross-curricular aims, amongst which, three are related to entrepreneurship education are taking responsibility for others; volunteering; career guidance; developing financial and monetary literacy.
Objectives and perspectives vary depending on age groups and subject areas; in STEM subjects, for instance, more emphasis is placed on creativity, planning, analysis, risk and trend assessment and managing project work. However, in geography or history, the focus is more on understanding financial and legal terms and contexts, the overall operation of the business world and ethics. Furthermore, there is a compulsory [community] practice as part of the curriculum.' (Eurydice, 2016)
Entreprenurship in the National Core Curriculum
In the new National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv), adopted in 2020, the 'Employee, innovative and entrepreneurship competencies' is one of the seven key competencies.
This topic appears in the frame of Citizenship studies in secondary grades. The student has to be able to interpret the factors that effect starting an enterprise. Also, the student has to learn to apply their financial knowledge in the situtations related specifically to their age (such as preparing a simple budget, currency exchange, planning a student enterprise), by the Geography subject. The Audiovisual and Media Knowledge subject provides the necessary entrepreneurial competencies to the student by learning and using the tools of the modern technology.
Besides the obligatory study materials there are two framework curricula related to entrepreneurship that contain optional courses the schools may offer:
- For grades 7-10 the 'Vállalkozzunk' ('Let’s make an enterprise') and 'Gazdasági és pénzügyi kultúra' ('Economic and financial culture'),
- for grades 11-12 the 'Etikus vállalkozói ismeretek' ('Ethical entrepreneurial knowledge') framework curriculum.
A number of public and private institutions offer programmes in the field of entrepreneurship. These are for the purposes of continuing one's studies, and quite frequently focus on specific fields of enterprises.
More and more higher education institutions start courses on enterprises and start-ups, which helps to build up the system of mentorship as well.
In addition, several public higher educational institutions offer business courses, for example,
- the Corvinus University of Budapest (Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem),
- the MBA education of Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem)
- the Budapest Business School (Budapesti Gazdasági Egyetem).
The International Business School and The Department of Economics and Business of Central European University are private institutions where business courses are also available.
The recognition of non-formal and informal learning appears in connection with start-ups in the framework of Hungarian youth policy, where along with public education, the frameworks of non-formal and informal learning are also considered as areas to support, however, these appear in the fields of cultural and human rights in more detail.
The Framework Strategy for the Policy of Lifelong Learning for 2014-2020 (Az egész életen át tartó tanulás szakpolitikájának keretstratégiája a 2014/2020 közötti időszakra) emphasises (in line with the Act on Higher Education) the importance of recognising non-formal and informal learning outcomes. One of the horizontal objectives of the strategy is to promote participation in lifelong learning. Specific objectives include the development and promotion of non-formal, informal and e-learning activities, as well as workplace learning and training. The Strategy ties this objective primarily to cultural institutions, whose specific objectives also include the development of entrepreneurial skills. The Strategy's action plan delegates this objective to the Minister of Human Capacities and the Minister for National Economy.
'Entrepreneurship education is addressed as an overarching educational aim and development task in the National Core Curriculum, which recommends broad pedagogical approaches (such as individual development and active learning), but does not provide direct guidelines to any of the key competencies or development tasks. The integration of Entrepreneurship Education into initial teacher education is a matter of institutional autonomy.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) courses related explicitly to entrepreneurial education are restricted to school-based Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) teachers, but all of them receive this type of CPD. 'The Hungarian National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education (NSZI) provides a CPD course on teaching entrepreneurship for all school-based IVET teachers.' (Eurydice, 2016)
The current action plan [1535/2016. (X. 13.) Korm. határozat] of National Youth Strategy (NYS) foresees 'the development of a set of supporting instruments which helps students to acquire skills, abilities and key competences.' The available support found is the HRDOP 4.1.2 project (EFOP 4.1.2 projekt) 'Infrastructural development of public education institutions, development of regional school system'. The total budget of the project is HUF 40 billion (about EUR 106 million). The programme includes several actions, and as far as entrepreneurial skills go, they appear within those horizontal key competencies that need development.