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EACEA National Policies Platform


6. Education and Training

6.8 Media literacy and safe use of new media

Last update: 2 April 2024
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  1. National strategy
  2. Media literacy and online safety through formal education
  3. Promoting media literacy and online safety through non-formal and informal learning
  4. Raising awareness about the risks posed by new media

National strategy

In December 2015, the Hungarian government adopted the 2012/2015. Government Decree on the Digital Success Programme to be implemented on the basis of the national consultation about internet and digital developments (InternetKon) by the Government, based on which three strategies were defined, two of which affect Hungarian youth:

For more information see sub-chapter 8.7 Fostering the creative use of new technologies.

The Digital Child Protection Strategy of Hungary

The strategy was adopted in 2016. The relevant organisations for the strategy were:

  • the former Ministry for Human Capacities,
  • the former Ministry for Innovation and Technology and
  • the Ministry of Interior (Belügyminisztérium).

Other respondents and consultants are (among others): 

The main objectives of the strategy:

  • Quality online content for children and young people;
  • Development of awareness-raising and preparatory actions;
  • Creating a secure online environment for children;
  • Fight against the sexual harassment and exploitation of children.

The strategy's target system is based on three pillars:

  • raising awareness and media literacy for both students, teachers and parents;
  • the establishment of protection and security with state involvement, and
  • sanctioning and assistance in the event of an offence.
Results of the strategy

In the frame of the strategy measurements, the following were launched:

  • the Ministry of Human Capacities established contact with the Victim Support Centres (Áldozasegítő Központok) in connection with the RJ grievance handling,
  • the coeval supporting programme and the training of the parents have been started,
  • the current National Core Curriculum pays emphasised attention to the strengthening of digital competencies.

The strategy also enhanced the appearance of the topic of media literacy in the Digital Theme Week Programme (Digitális Témahét). Besides that, in previous years, from 2020, the main themes were digitalisation in the 21st century, digital literature, child protection, artificial intelligence and in 2024, the algorithmic thinking and programming as the tools of creation and digital safety.

There is also a programme which was made available by the strategy, called NETMENTOR (NETMENTOR program), that aims to call attention to the advantages and safe use of internet through a peer person (from student to student). That means that teachers from the schools participate in a training, then, they train and mentor 9th grade students to provide information for other (usually younger) children in their own or another school on how to use the internet safely. The advantage is that a young person knows better what the other young people use the internet for, thus they could provide better help and support.

The Digital Education Strategy of Hungary

The strategy was adopted in 2016 and follows the learning pathway at all levels of the education system (school education, vocational training, higher education, adult learning), and considers it important to create equal opportunities and a secure digital environment. The strategy is designed to develop the following areas:

  • applied methodology (teacher education and training, and institutional development);
  • educators' digital skills and attitudes;
  • physical infrastructure, access, internal networks;
  • asset availability of educational institutions;
  • content (NAT and Framework Surveillance, Digital Content Development);
  • education management (administration and quality management, standard information system, student measurement, management information system).

The professional implementation of the Digital Education Strategy (Digitális Oktatási Stratégia) is supported by the Digital Pedagogical Methodology Centre (Digitális Pedagógiai Módszertani Központ), which provides methodological, professional background and expert base, and deals with the professional supervision of applications and projects related to the implementation of the strategy. The monitoring tasks of the strategy also relate to the Digital Pedagogical Methodology Centre. 

In the frame of the Strategy the following measurements were implemented:

  • Launching of the Digital Card System (Digitális Névjegy Rendszer) which is a complex feedback and development tool for schools to measure the level of digital skills in the educational institution. The aim of the System is to give the opportunity for the schools to better apply the digital tools and to develop the digital skills of the students.
  • The Digital Pedagogical Methodology Centre launched a Digital Pedagogical Knowledge Database (Digitális Pedagógiai Tudásbázis) which provides methodological support to the teachers in the digital education.
The National Digitalization Strategy 2021 - 2030

The Ministry for Innovation and Technology and the Ministry of Interior prepared the National Digitalization Strategy 2021 – 2030 (Nemzeti Digitalizációs Stratégia 2021 - 2030) as a frame strategy of different digital strategies, initiatives, and documents. The four main aims of the Strategy focus on the Hungarian citizens in general, but some of them includes developments related also to youth:

  • digital infrastructure (also includes the digital infrastructure development of schools and digital development of higher education institutions, research networks and public collections),
  • digital competencies (includes supporting the structural change in education for the development of digital competencies),
  • digital economy and
  • digital state.

To implement the strategy, the Government has lunched the Digital Renewal Operational Programme Plus (Digitális Megújulás Operatív Program Plusz). The programme is jointly financed by EU and state resources. Several applications are available under the programme that relate to the development of young people's digital skills.

The Public Education Strategy 2021 - 2030

The Hungarian Government adopted the Public Education Strategy 2021 -2030 (Köznevelési stratégia 2021 - 2030) in 2021. One aim of the Strategy relates to 'Public education which reflects the challenges of the 21st century'. As a part of it

'supporting the digital culture of the students and teachers and the safe use of the Internet and to ensure appropriate methodological and technical support.'

is highlighted.

As the Strategy states,

'the digital competencies go beyond using the digital devices: the safe and responsible use of new media and using the possibilities of it are important for stepping to the labour market and for everyday life.'

Media literacy and online safety through formal education

With regard to media literacy and online security, the current National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv) contains elements by subjects.

Media literacy

The topic is covered by the students in the subject of Motion Picture Culture and Media Literacy. The aim of the course is

'to acquire basic media literacy, especially to develop cinematic comprehension, to explore the media's social role and mode of operation. The teaching of the course is strongly related to digital culture, Hungarian language and literature, and the arts.'

Online safety

The topic is covered in the Digital Culture course.

'The course aims to transfer and develop up-to-date knowledge and skills that will make the learner a successful and useful member of the information society. Algorithmization and coding (…), problem-solving in a digital environment, creativity, cooperation and logical thinking play an important role in the course. (…) An important task of the course is to enable the student to solve the problems with the tools of the digital environment.' 

Teachers' training

The Accreditation Department of the Educational Authority organizes several training sessions for educators in teacher's training in the field of online safety such as:

The Public Education Strategy 2021 - 2030 (Köznevelési stratégia 2021 - 2030) highlights that the development of the digital competencies of the teachers is important and in the future, the training of the teachers has to be more intensive and more targeted. That means the emphasis to acquire the knowledge of the digital methodologies and tools that could be applied already in the kindergartens and related to certain school subjects.

'DigiKomp' - a digital competence framework

In 2019, the Hungarian Government adopted the Government Decree 'On the Development and Implementation Steps of the Digital Competence Framework' submitted by the former Ministry for Innovation and Technology.

'The Hungarian system, called 'DigKomp', will operate not only as a reference framework, but as a unified system that enables the definition, development, measurement and evaluation of digital competence, as well as the verification of its existence and state recognition. With the development of 'DigKomp', it will be possible to uniformly interpret and assign digital competencies acquired in the education and training system, adult education, and independent learning to predefined competence levels.'


Promoting media literacy and online safety through non-formal and informal learning

Hungary is seeking to raise awareness of the importance of media literacy and the importance of online security in non-formal and informal learning. As an example, in the framework of the TÁMOP-3.1.14-12-2013-0001 'Future Conscious Media Consumers - Media Literacy and Media Awareness dissemination' (TÁMOP-3.1.14-12-2013-0001) project, the National Media and Infocommunications Authority (Nemzeti Média-és Hírközlési Hatóság) established the Magic Valley media education training centre (Bűvösvölgy médiaértés-oktató központot).

It aims to support the development of media awareness among young people. The first centre was opened in 2014 (according to the information provided by the Ministry, it was funded from the budget of the project [HUF 500 million (about EUR 1.3 million)] in Budapest, and another was opened in Debrecen in 2017 [according to the information provided by the Ministry, it was funded by HUF 295 million (about EUR 756 000)]. In 2020, one more centre was opened in Sopron ('Bűvösvölgy Sopron'). According to Ministry information, between 1 January 2022 and November 2023, more than 28 000 students participated in the programmes.

Raising awareness about the risks posed by new media

The National Media and Infocommunications Authority has an important role in raising awareness about the risks of using the new media. They launch several activities, campaigns and provide guidance to draw attention to that topic.

Safer Internet Day activities

Every year, the National Media and Infocommunications Authority organizes events, programmes and public campaigns to raise awareness of the risks of the media, not only among young people, but also among their parents and teachers. On Safer Internet Day, the Authority always initiates a campaign aimed at raising awareness of the safe and conscious use of the Internet among young people and their parents.

In 2023, the campaign promoted communication between parents and their children about children's online presence. The main message was that parents should start the conversation about online media consumption habits and children's positive and negative experiences with online media.

In 2022, they launched a campaign called 'Red Flag' ('Red Flag' kampány), which aimed to raise children's awareness so that they recognise the signs when someone is violent, manipulative or aggressive in online communication and wants to get an intimate photo of him/her. They emphasise that the child should not feel compelled to share intimate photos online if they think something is wrong. If it happens anyway, they can use the Authority's website to report the problem, the Internet Hotline.

Guidance for parents and children on online games

The Authority has published several guidelines relating to the risks of new media. The topics include online video games and cyberbullying. The 'Guidance to gamer kids' ('Kézikönyv gamer gyerekekhez') contains information about what and how much to let the children play, how they can avoid financial traps and about streamers. 

Another guide, called 'Is the child ok, when he/she plays?' ('Jól van a gyerek, ha játszik?'), is published in 2023, which is rather a knowledge repository on video games. The repository describes the 'players' and their motivations and also provides information about the games, how they work, the logic behind them and their effects. It contains practical advice on how to help children avoid addiction and also emphasises how children can use online games to develop their skills.

Guidance for adolescents on cyberbullying

The Authority also published a leaflet in 2023 on cyberbullying, called 'It is not cool to hurt others' ('Mást bántani nem menő'). The aim was to sensitise young people to the issue of cyberbullying among their peers. The possible negative effects and consequences of cyberbullying are described and it is emphasised that they can talk about their problems. Information on various support services is also available. The leaflet gives advice on how to stop and avoid cyberbullying.

Website on the digital world

The Authority also operates a website, called Digipedia that provides information related to the online word. Many articles are available in the following topics:

  • digital child protection
  • online security issues
  • digital finances
  • data protection
  • digital innovation.
Large-scale campaign for conscious mobile usage

The National Media and Infocommunications Authority launched a programme in 2023, called 'Mobile is my family?' ('A mobil a családom?'). The aim is to draw attention to the excessive use of mobile devices in families. The website of this initiative contains advice for families on how to reduce the time spent on mobile devices and create a healthy and conscious environment for mobile use in the family. It also mentions the topics mentioned above and lists the guidance.

Mediapedagogical curriculum

The former Ministry of Human Capacities commissioned a media pedagogical association (Televele Médiapegagóiai Műhely Egyesület) in 2018 to create a media pedagogical curriculum to reflect the challenges of the changing media world. This curriculum was made primarily for the teachers who take part in the Digital Theme Week Programme (Digitális Témahét), but all of the teachers could access it. This curriculum consists of three study packs for the grades 1-4., 5-8., 9-12. The content of the curriculum for the youth age group in grades 9-12:

  • fake news,
  • online influence, and
  • body and soul in the digital world, addictions.