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In December 2015, the Hungarian government adopted the 2012/2015. Government Decree on the Digital Success Programme to be implemented on the basis of the national consultation about internet and digital developments (InternetKon) by the Government [2012/2015. (XII. 29.) Korm. határozat az internetről és a digitális fejlesztésekről szóló nemzeti konzultáció (InternetKon) eredményei alapján a Kormány által végrehajtandó Digitális Jólét Programjáról], based on which three strategies were defined, two of which affect Hungarian youth:
- the Digital Child Protection Strategy of Hungary (Magyarország Digitális Gyermekvédelmi Stratégiája) and
- the Digital Education Strategy of Hungary (Magyarország Digitális Oktatási Stratégiája).
For more information see sub-chapter 8.7 Fostering the creative use of new technologies.
The Digital Child Protection Strategy of Hungary
The strategy was adopted in 2016. The relevant organisations for the strategy are:
- the Ministry for Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma),
- the Ministry of Innovation and Technology (Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium) and
- the Ministry of Interior (Belügyminisztérium).
Other respondents and consultants are (among others):
- the National Cyber Safety Coordination Council (Nemzeti Kiberbiztonsági Koordinációs Tanács),
- National Authority for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (Nemzeti Adatvédelmi és Információszabadság Hatóság),
- National Media and Infocommunications Authority (Nemzeti Média- és Hírközlési Hatóság),
- Media Council of the National Media and Infocommunications Authority,
- Internet Roundtable for Child Protection (Gyermekvédelmi Internet-kerekasztal),
- Office of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights (Alapvető Jogok Biztosának Hivatala),
- Office of the Commissioner for Educational Rights (Oktatási Jogok Biztosának Hivatala).
The main objectives of the strategy:
- Quality online content for children and young people;
- Development of awareness-raising and preparatory actions;
- Creating a secure online environment for children;
- Fight against the sexual harassment and exploitation of children.
The strategy's target system is based on three pillars:
- raising awareness and media literacy for both students, teachers and parents;
- the establishment of protection and security with state involvement, and
- sanctioning and assistance in the event of an offense.
In the frame of the strategy measurements the following were launched:
- The Ministry of Human Capacities established contact with the Victim Support Centres (Áldozasegítő Központok) in connection with the RJ grievance handling.
- A professional forum was held in February 2018 with the participation of 100 teachers.
- The coeval supporting programme and the training of the parents has been started.
- The plan of the new National Core Curriculum pays emphasised attention to the strengthening of the digital competences.
- In the Digital Theme Week Programme (Digitális Témahét) the topic of media literacy (tudatos médiahasználat) has appeared in 2020.
The Digital Education Strategy of Hungary
The strategy was adopted in 2016 and follows the learning pathway at all levels of the education system (school education, vocational training, higher education, adult learning), and considers it important to create equal opportunities and a secure digital environment. The strategy is designed to develop the following areas:
- applied methodology (teacher education and training, and institutional development);
- educators' digital skills and attitudes;
- physical infrastructure, access, internal networks;
- asset availability of educational institutions;
- content (Nat and Framework Surveillance, Digital Content Development);
- education management (administration and quality management, standard information system, student measurement, management information system).
The professional implementation of the Digital Education Strategy (Digitális Oktatási Stratégia) is supported by the Digital Pedagogical Methodology Center (Digitális Pedagógiai Módszertani Központ), which provides methodological, professional background and expert base, and deals with the professional supervision of applications and projects related to the implementation of the strategy. The monitoring tasks of the strategy also relate to the Digital Pedagogical Methodology Center.
With regard to media literacy and online security, the new National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv) contains elements by subjects.
The topic is covered by the students in the subject of Motion Picture Culture and Media Literacy. The aim of the course is
'to acquire basic media literacy, especially to develop cinematic comprehension, to explore the social role and mode of operation of the media. The teaching of the course is strongly related to digital culture, Hungarian language and literature, and the arts.'
The topic is covered in the Digital Culture course.
'The aim of the course is to transfer and develop up-to-date knowledge and skills that will make the learner a successful and useful member of the information society. Algorithmization and coding (…), problem-solving in a digital environment, creativity, cooperation and logical thinking play an important role in the course. (…) An important task of the course is to enable the student to solve the problems with the tools of the digital environment.'
The Accreditation Department of the Educational Authority (Oktatási Hivatal Akkreditációs Osztálya) organises several training sessions for educators in teacher’s training in the field of media literacy.
Another program is the 'Development of Media Consciousness in School' ('Médiatudatosság fejlesztése az iskolában'), which develops educators’ intelligent and critical use of media to be able to prepare children for critical media behaviour.
A third program, 'Good Practices in Public Education for New Media and Motion Picture Education' ('A köznevelésben hasznosítható jó gyakorlatok az újmédia és a mozgókép oktatásához') aims to enhance the knowledge and development of analytical use of new media formats among teachers, that can support their teaching with more sensitivity towards problems of the new media.
Another new program is the so-called 'Digital competence development' ('Digitális kompetencia fejlesztése'). 'The main expectations of the program are
- to contribute to the development of a quality and equitable public education system,
- to facilitate successful participation in lifelong learning by reducing early school leaving, and
- to acquire the digital competencies required by society and the labour market.'
The program also provides teachers IT tools. The aims of the program are the following:
- renewal of the pedagogical methodology of learning and teaching,
- provision of the modern IT infrastructure for public education institutions,
- supporting the teaching-learning process according to modern pedagogical methods by ensuring WiFi coverage of all public education institutions.
Hungary is seeking to raise awareness of the importance of media literacy and the importance of online security in non-formal and informal learning. As an example, in the framework of the TÁMOP-3.1.14-12-2013-0001 'Future Conscious Media Consumers - Media Literacy and Media Awareness dissemination' (TÁMOP-3.1.14-12-2013-0001- 'A Jövő tudatos médiafogyasztói – médiaműveltség és médiatudatosság elterjesztése') project, the National Media and Infocommunications Authority (Nemzeti Média-és Hírközlési Hatóság) established the Magic Valley media education training centre (Bűvösvölgy médiaértés-oktató központot).
It aims to support the development of media awareness among young people. The first centre was opened in 2014 (according to the information provided by the Ministry it was supported from the budget of the project [500 million HUF (about 1,6 million EUR)] in Budapest, and another was opened in Debrecen in 2017 [according to the information provided by the Ministry it was supported by 295 million HUF (about 937 000 EUR)]. In 2020, one more centre was opened in Sopron ('Bűvösvölgy Sopron').
The Ministry of Human Capacities and the former New Generation Center [Új Nemzedék Központ (now it is Elisabeth Youth Fund) (Erzsébet Ifjúsági Alap)] have created a multi-year educational program on cyber security, the Digital Immune Strengthening Program (Digitális Immunerősítő Program). It includes a movie on online security specifically targeted on students and screened at schools, complemented with 'unusual head teacher’s class', where students have the opportiunity to discuss the content of the film.
The Ministry of Human Capacities commissioned a media pedagogical association (Televele Médiapegagóiai Műhely Egyesület) in 2018 to create a media pedagogical curriculum to reflect the challenges of the changing media world. This curriculum was made primarily to the teachers who take part in the Digital Theme Week Programme (Digitális Témahét) but all of the teacher could access it. This curriculum consists of three study packs for the grades 1-4., 5-8., 9-12. The content of the curriculum for the youth age group Grades 9-12:
- Fake news,
- Online influence,
- Body and soul in the digital world, addictions.