4.5 Initiatives promoting social inclusion and raising awareness
On this page
On this page
Reviewing the contents of textbooks and curricula treating the Roma/Gipsy ethnic group and the Roma/Gipsy holocaust
In 2015, upon the request of the Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development [Oktatáskutató és Fejlesztő Intézet (referred hereinafter to as OFI)] the researchers of the Department of Romology and Sociology of Education functioning at the University of Pécs had studied the current situation of how much Roma culture is represented in the textbooks and curricula.
The actual tasks defined during the research and analysis were discussed between the staff of the Department of Romani Studies and Sociology of Education and OFI's working group for textbook development on 26 November 2015 in Pécs. The key findings of the analyses were recorded at the meeting, then a schedule related to the implementation of the tasks was drawn up.
According to the schedule, the system of requirements for Roman/gipsy representation has become enforceable in 40 textbooks in 2016/2017 academic year, and another 60 textbooks was planned to revised for academic year 2017/2018 based on the terms of reference. The remaining teaching materials were expected to be revised according to schedule starting from academic year 2018/2019.
The revision of the teaching materials touched upon various subjects including Hungarian language and literature, history, ethics, environment and nature study, geography, visual culture, singing and music. [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés 2017, p. 80)]
In 2018 and 2019, textbook development was carried out by the Institute for Educational Research and Development. It is important that disadvantaged groups and nationalities appear in the textbooks. [2020 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS 2020 nyomonkövetési jelentés)]
Special Colleges for Roma
The Christian Roma College Network [Keresztény Roma Szakkollégium (referred hereinafter to as CRCN)] was established by Christian Churches of Hungary in 2011 for the purpose of
- strengthening Roma intellectuals, and
- helping Roma students to get university or college degrees.
The students of the Roma Special Colleges receive performance-dependent scholarships. The scholarship provided for the members of the special colleges is subject to measurable professional-research performance. Students shall meet stringent criteria for becoming eligible for the maximum amount, and they shall also take part in
- voluntary and
- research programmes.
- mentoring and
- tutorial assistance, as well as
- assistance by the heads of the special colleges.
In addition, they also have the opportunity for
- learning languages,
- travelling abroad,
- participating in professional conferences and community-building camps.
The aim of the project was to support complex talent fostering programmes within the framework of the special colleges for the Roma, which contribute to training Roma intellectuals who are devoted to undertaking tasks in public life and are involved in active social dialogue, merging professional excellence with sensitivity to social issues.
In the 2018-2019 academic school year 327 people started their studies at Roma special colleges. There are currently 11 specialised schools in Hungary and EUR 3.7 million (HUF 1.4 billion) is provided for the programme from EFOP and VEKOP sources. According to the information provided by the Ministry, in the past 10 years, 90% of students graduating from a Roma special colleges have a job.
'Get involved in broadcasting!' ['Kapcsolódj be a közvetítésbe!'] - Shaping the attitudes of society by involving the media
As a result of the call for applications in 2015, six disadvantaged young people was on a year-long scholarship programme launched by Ministry of Human Capacities (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma) together with the Media Services and Support Trust Fund (MTVA).
The 2016 call for applications for the training program titled 'Get involved in broadcasting!' was open for mainly disadvantaged Roma young people between 18 and 30 years of age with at least secondary education, and from among them were chosen the ones who was on a one-year scholarship to work as trainees in MTVA. There were 20 participants in the programme, 6 of them had a scolarship and 3 of them were employed after the programme in public media. The programme lasted until 2018.
The programme was launched in the area of news reporting because the world of news and newsreel is the backbone of journalism and the newsroom brings together the three areas of news: news agency, radio news broadcasting and television. The fellows was also be given speech training and got involved in work behind and also in front of the camera. [2017 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS nyomonkövetési jelentés, 2017)]
Awareness-raising cultural events
According to the information provided by the Ministry in 2019, there is a yearly event since 2006 called 371 Stars - Courage and Roma Youth Day ('371 Csillag - Bátorság és a Roma Ifjúság Napja') in Hungary, supported by the Deputy State Secretariat for Social Inclusion. In the last five years it was held in the Hungarian National Theatre. 371 Stars is a commemoration of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Gipsy camp with theatrical performances, readings.
The Roma Values Festival (Cigánykerék – Roma Értékek Fesztivál) on the occasion of the Day for Roma Culture is another cultural event. Participants are from all age groups. The main goal is to familiarise them with the Roma culture and values. The main programme usually includes
- performing traditional music, traditional dancing,
- presenting folk traditions,
- round-table discussions, etc.
The event has been running with government support since 2013, it was held the last time in April 2019.
Preventing Prostitution and Human Trafficking
In Hungary, several laws deal with prostitution, sexual exploitation of children or young people (under the age of 18); for example
- Act C of 2012 on Criminal Code,
- The Fundamental Law of Hungary,
- Act XXXI of 1997 on Child Protection (1997. évi XXXI. törvény a gyermekek védelméről és a gyámügyi igazgatásról),
- Law Against Sexual Exploitation (Lanzarote Convention),
- Act LXXV of 1999 on Organised Crime (1999. évi LXXV. törvény).
These laws prohibit the sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children and protect the territory and sorroundings of schools, children hospitals and child protection institutions.
Hungary has initiatives aiming to prevent prostitution and trafficking in human beings. The related programmes do not reach a wide range of young people or experts. The target groups are:
- high-school and
- college students,
- children and youngsters raised in children's home,
- professionals in youth, social and school fields,
- consuls etc. (According to the information provided by the Ministry in 2018.)
Domestic Violence and Human Trafficking
The EFOP-1.2.5 'Safe Heaven' (EFOP-3.3.1-15 Biztos Menedék) supports building and expanding the institutional system helping the victims of domestic violence and human trafficking in Hungary. Two parts, the
- crisis centres and
- half-way exit houses already exist, while
- crisis management ambulances need to be established later.
The programme has a budget of about EUR 5 million (HUF 1 640 million).
In 2018, new crisis centres, clandestine shelters and exit houses became operational. Crisis management clinics have been set up in 7 regions of the country. In addition, the victim assistance system was developed by the Hungarian Government.
In addition, social professionals (about 5 000 people) working in the child protection system were able to participate in further training. The aim of the project (EFOP-1.2.4-VEKOP-16 Kríziskezelő szolgáltatások fejlesztése) was to provide further knowledge and changing attitudes in the topic of child prostitution and child trafficking. The budget is about EUR 3.24 million (HUF 1.16 billion). [2020 Follow up report on National Social Inclusion Strategy (MNTFS 2020 nyomonkövetési jelentés)]
EFOP-1.2.1 'Safety net for families' (EFOP-1.2.1 Védőháló a családokért) is a complex programme, aiming to support experts providing training for individuals or groups to help families get stronger. Preventing domestic violence is part of its main goals.
No other programmes are available about the topic that are provided for a wide range of youngsters and financed by the Hungarian state. Reasons behind it can be that the government priorities focus on other fields such as solutions for demographical challenges in Hungary regarding the decline in population, or the cross-sectorial approach of youth policy.
There are no directives in place related to the topic.