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European Health Interview Survey
According to the latest data of the European Health Interview Survey from 2014 (Európai lakossági egészségfelmérés, 2014), 91% of 15-29-year-old youth people consider their health status as good or very good. Meanwhile, for 20% of 15-17-year-old young people, being underweight and malnutrition are problems, for young adults, overweight and obesity are much more widespread: 39% of males and 23% of females fall into this category. Comparisons with earlier surveys show only a slight decrease among young male adults and a small increase among young female adults. [European Health Interview Survey, 2014 (Európai Lakossági Egészségfelmérés, 2014, Statisztikai Tükör 2015/29, KSH)] In the autumn of 2019, the European Population Health Survey (abbreviated as ELEF2019) was conducted for the third time in Hungary. The survey was conducted from 16 September 2019 to 16 December 2019 in 510 locations with 12 002 people. For the first time in the history of the ELEF, the target population for data collection includes the younger ones. If the selected person has a child between the ages of 6 months and 14 years living in the same household, the information will also be collected about him/her.
Differences by gender
The results of the survey in 2014 show significant gender differences.
'In the full sample, girls consider their health acceptable or poor significantly higher than boys. But if we break down the data by age, we can see, that significant difference appears only in the 7th, 9th and 11th grades. In older age groups the ratio of those reporting of unfavourable health condition is also higher.' [Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2014. (Egészség és egészségmagatartás iskoláskorában 2014, p 136)]
Differences by the level of education
There is also difference according to the level of education.
'Among those attending courses that do not provide [a leaving diploma], there are significantly less of those who consider their health excellent (21.8%) than those in high school and technical school (26.2%); but there are more vocational and technical school students who think their health condition is acceptable (25.3% compared to the 17.6% of the students in courses with a school graduates exam).' [Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2014. (Egészség és egészségmagatartás iskoláskorban 2014, p 136)]
Results of youth researches
The results of the large sample youth research conducted in every four years in Hungary, the Hungarian Youth Research 2016 (Magyar Ifjúság Kutatás 2016) shows an improving tendency. According to the research three quarters of 15-29-year-old Hungarian youth were satisfied with their health condition and well-being both in 2008 and 2012. In 2016 79% felt so. Half of the sample were satisfied with their level of fitness in 2008, 52% in 2012 and 57% in 2016. Also, half of them (50%) were satisfied with their appearance in 2008, 61% in 2012. This figure increased to 64% in 2016.
According to the Hungarian Youth Research survey conducted in 2016,
'the proportion of daily smokers has decreased by two percentage points compared to the data from four years earlier. The decrease is even higher (7 percentage) compared to the data from 2004. The ratio of non-smokers is decreasing or stagnating in various age groups of the youth population.' (Magyar Ifjúság Kutatás 2016)
According to the Hungarian Youth Research survey conducted in 2012,
'one third of young people claimed that they did not drink alcohol during the past year, while 13% had a drink at least once a week. Based on data from 2016, the proportion of those who almost never drink and who drink weekly has decerased by two and by six percentage points.’ (Magyar Ifjúság Kutatás 2016)
According to a non-representative study (felmérés) in 2019 made by the 'Sorted programme' (Szétcsúszva program), nearly half of young people between the ages of 14 and 18 (46%) have not remembered things after consuming too much alcohol. It happened to 15% of them that after a lot of drinks, they posted messages on social media that they later regret. Nearly a quarter of the respondents (24.8%) indicated that their mood have changed due to alcohol, and they became depressed and anxious. More girls (28%) experienced such symptoms than boys (21%).
In Hungary there is a widespread professional understanding of 'health information is a resource of the professional politics that is crucial to health planning, realisation and evaluation.' (European Health Information Initiative)
The focus of this chapter is on:
- governmental actions regarding youth health
- provisions and guidance regarding sports and mental health
- healthcare measures regarding youth
- the improvement of mental health
- the treatment of mental diseases.